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1099 - First Crusade: Christian soldiers take Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after a difficult siege.

1162 - Ladislaus II of Hungary declared King of Hungary.

1207 - John of England expels Canterbury monks for supporting Archbishop of Canterbury Stephen Langton

1240 - A Novgorodian army led by Alexander Nevsky defeats the Swedes in the Battle of the Neva

1381 - John Ball, a leader in the Peasants' Revolt, hanged, drawn and quartered in the presence of Richard II of England.

1410 - Battle of Grunwald (a.k.a. Tannenberg or Zalgiris): power of the Teutonic Knights broken by a defeat from Poles and Lithuanians

1685 - James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth is executed at Tower Hill, England after his defeat at the Battle of Sedgemore on 6 July 1685.

1789 - Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette, by acclamation, named colonel-general of the new National Guard of Paris.

1799 - Rosetta Stone is found in the Egyptian village of Rosetta, by French Captain Pierre-François Bouchard.

1806 - Pike expedition: Near St. Louis, Missouri, United States Army Lieutenant Zebulon Pike begins an expedition from Fort Belle Fountaine to explore the west.

1815 - Napoléon Bonaparte surrenders from aboard HMS Bellerophon

1862 - American Civil War: Confederates break naval blockade of Vicksburg, Mississippi.

1870 - Post-American-Civil-War Reconstruction: Georgia becomes the last of the former Confederate states to be readmitted to the Union.


1870 - Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory are transferred to Canada from the Hudson's Bay Company, and the province of Manitoba and the North-West Territories are established from these vast territories.

1895 - Archie MacLaren scores County Championship record cricket innings of 424 for Lancashire against Somerset at Taunton.

1916 - In Seattle, Washington, William Boeing and George Conrad Westervelt incorporate Pacific Aero Products (later renamed Boeing).

1918 - World War I: Second Battle of the Marne - The battle begins near the River Marne with a German attack.

1926 - BEST buses make its début in Mumbai.

1927 - Massacre of July 15, 1927: 89 protesters are killed by the Austrian police in Vienna.

1929 - First weekly radio broadcast of Mormon Tabernacle Choir radio show, Music and the Spoken Word.

1931 - Kid Chocolate becomes Cuba's first world boxing champion.

1945 - President Harry Truman disembarks the heavy cruiser the USS Augusta (CA-31) in Antwerp en route to Potsdam for the Potsdam Conference.

1953 - John Reginald Christie, British serial killer executed.

1954 - First flight of the Boeing 707, the first American jet passenger airliner.

1955 - Eighteen Nobel laureates signed the Mainau Declaration against nuclear weapons, later co-signed by thirty-four others.

1958 - In Lebanon, 5,000 United States Marines land in the capital Beirut in order to provide military support to the pro-Western government there.


1974 - In Nicosia, Cyprus, Greek-sponsored nationalists launch a coup d'état, deposing President Makarios and installing Nikos Sampson as Cypriot president.

1974 - Christine Chubbuck becomes the first person to commit suicide on-air.

1975 - Apollo Soyuz Test Project: Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft take off for U.S.-Soviet link-up in space.

1979 - U.S. President Jimmy Carter gives his famous "malaise" speech, where he characterizes the greatest threat to the country as "this crisis in the growing doubt about the meaning of our own lives and in the loss of a unity of purpose for our nation."

1994 - Albert Belle of the Cleveland Indians caught with a corked bat.

1995 - First item sold on Amazon.com

1996 - MSNBC cable-DBS channel launched

1996 - A Belgian Air Force C-130 Hercules carrying the Royal Netherlands Army marching band crashes on landing at Eindhoven Airport.

1997 - In Miami, Florida, serial killer Andrew Phillip Cunanan guns down Gianni Versace outside his home.

1999 - Safeco Field opens in Seattle, Washington.

2000 - Alex Jones and cameraman Mike Hanson successfully infiltrate the controversial Bohemian Club and expose the occultist rituals taking place there.

2002 - "American Taliban" John Walker Lindh pleads guilty to supplying aid to the enemy and for the possession of explosives during the commission of a felony.

2002 - Anti-Terrorism Court of Pakistan awarded death sentence to British born Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh and life term to three other suspects in murdering Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl.

2003 - AOL Time Warner disbands Netscape Communications Corporation. The Mozilla Foundation is established on the same day.

2003 - the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention removed its SARS-related travel advisory for Taiwan, the last area to have such a travel alert.

2004 - Monorail service begins in Las Vegas.

2004 - The BBC airs the documentary The Secret Agent, exposing racism by members of the British National Party.

2005 - Jack Nicklaus plays his last hole of competitive golf during The Open Championship at Hole 18 at St Andrews, finishing with a birdie.

2005 - Disneyland "re-launches" Space Mountain in Anaheim, California.


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