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1189 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade.

1276 - Innocent V becomes Pope.

1287 - The treaty of San Agayz is signed. Minorca is conquered by King Alfons III of Aragon.

1525 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement is born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptize each other in the home of Manz's mother in Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union.

1643 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga.

1720 - Sweden and Prussia sign the Treaty of Stockholm.

1789 - The first American novel, The Power of Sympathy or the Triumph of Nature Founded in Truth, is printed in Boston, Massachusetts.

1793 - After being found guilty of treason by the French Convention, Louis XVI of France is guillotined.

1793 - Russia and Prussia partition Poland.

1853 - Russell L. Hawes patents the envelope-folding machine.

1861 - American Civil War: Jefferson Davis resigns from the United States Senate.

1864 - The Tauranga Campaign starts during the Maori Wars.

1887 - The Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) is formed.


1887 - Brisbane receives a daily rainfall of 465 millimetres (18.3 inches), a record for any Australian capital city.

1899 - Opel Motors opens for business.

1908 - New York City passes the Sullivan Ordinance, making it illegal for women to smoke in public, only to have the measure vetoed by the mayor.

1911 - The first Monte Carlo Rally.

1915 - Kiwanis International founded in Detroit, Michigan.

1919 - Meeting of the First Dáil ÿireann in the Mansion House Dublin, Sinn Féin adopts Ireland's first constitution. The first engagement of Irish War of Independence, Sologhead Beg, County Tipperary.

1924 - Vladimir Lenin dies and Joseph Stalin begins to purge his rivals to clear way for his leadership.

1925 - Albania declares itself a republic.

1941 - World War II: Australian and British forces attack Tobruk, Libya.

1950 - Alger Hiss is convicted of perjury.

1954 - The first nuclear-powered submarine, the USS Nautilus, is launched in Groton, Connecticut by Mamie Eisenhower, then the First Lady of the United States.

1958 - The last Fokker C.X in military service, the FAF FK-111 target tower, crashed killing the pilot and winch-operator.

1968 - Simon & Garfunkel release the Original Soundtrack to The Graduate, which quickly goes to #1 on the pop charts and which will bring Simon a Grammy for Best Original Score.


1968 - One of the most publicized and controversial battles of the Vietnam War war begins the Battle of Khe Sanh.

1969 - An experimental underground nuclear reactor at Lucens Vad, Switzerland, released radiation into a cavern, which was then sealed.

1976 - The first commercial service Concorde flight took off.

1977 - President Jimmy Carter pardons nearly all American Vietnam War draft evaders, some of whom had emigrated to Canada.

1985 - Because January 20 had fallen on a Sunday, Ronald Reagan's public inaugural ceremony (for his second term as President) was moved to Monday, January 21. Due to bad weather, the ceremony was held indoors in the United States Capital Rotunda.[1]

1997 - Newt Gingrich becomes the first leader of the United States House of Representatives to be internally disciplined for ethical misconduct.

1999 - War on Drugs: In one of the largest drug busts in American history, the United States Coast Guard intercepts a ship with over 9,500 pounds (4,300 kg) of cocaine on board.

2002 - Canadian Dollar sets all-time low against the US Dollar (US$0.6179).

2004 - Canada: The residence of reporter Juliet O'Neill is searched by the RCMP investigating leaks concerning the deportation of Maher Arar.

2004 - NASA's MER-A (the Mars Rover Spirit) ceases communication with mission control. The problem lies with Flash Memory management and is fixed remotely from Earth on February 6th.

2005 - In Belize's capital city, the unrest over the government's new taxes erupts into riots.


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