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393 - Roman Emperor Theodosius I proclaims his nine years old son Honorius co-emperor.

1510 - Henry VIII of England, then 18 years old, appears incognito in the lists at Richmond, and is applauded for his jousting before he reveals his identity.

1533 - Anne Boleyn, mistress of Henry VIII of England, discovers herself pregnant.

1546 - Having published nothing for eleven years, Francois Rabelais brings out his sequel to Gargantua and Pantagruel: the Tiers Livre.

1556 - The deadliest earthquake in history, the Shaanxi earthquake, hits Shaanxi province, China. The death toll may have been as high as 830,000.

1570 - The assassination of regent James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war.

1571 - The Royal Exchange opens in London.

1579 - The Union of Utrecht forms a Protestant republic in the Netherlands.

1719 - The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire.

1789 - Georgetown College becomes the first Catholic college in the United States (Washington, DC).

1849 - Elizabeth Blackwell is awarded her M.D. by the Medical Institute of Geneva, New York, becoming the United States' first woman doctor.

1855 - The first bridge over the Mississippi River opens in what is now Minneapolis, Minnesota, a crossing made today by the Father Louis Hennepin Bridge.

1870 - In Montana, U.S. cavalrymen kill 173 Indians, most women and children, in the Marias Massacre.


1897 - Elva Zona Heaster found dead in Greenbrier County, West Virginia. The resulting murder trial of her husband was perhaps the only case in United States history where the alleged testimony of a ghost helped secure a conviction.

1899 - Emilio Aguinaldo was sworn in as President of the First Philippine Republic.

1904 - ÿlesund Fire: Norwegian coastal town ÿlesund is devastated by fire, leaving 10,000 people homeless and one person dead. The town where rebuild in Jugendstil architecture.

1907 - Charles Curtis from Kansas, becomes the first Native American US Senator.

1912 - The International Opium Convention is signed at The Hague.

1920 - The Netherlands refuses to surrender ex-Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany to the Allies.

1937 - In Moscow, 17 leading Communists go on trial accused of participating in a plot led by Leon Trotsky to overthrow Joseph Stalin's regime and assassinate its leaders.

1941 - Charles Lindbergh testifies before the U.S. Congress and recommends that the United States negotiate a neutrality pact with Adolf Hitler.

1943 - World War II: British forces capture Tripoli in Libya from the Nazis.

1943 - Jewish-led Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.

1943 - World War II: Australian and American forces finally defeat the Japanese army in Papua. This turning point in the Pacific War marks the beginning of the end of Japanese aggression.

1943 - Duke Ellington plays at Carnegie Hall in New York City for the first time.

1945 - Karl Dönitz launches Operation Hannibal.


1950 - The Knesset passes a resolution that states Jerusalem is the capital of Israel.

1960 - The bathyscaphe USS Trieste breaks a depth record by descending to the deepest point in the Pacific Ocean. The depth was measured to be 35,813 feet (10,916 m) but later measurements show it to be 35,798 feet (10,911 m).

1964 - The 24th Amendment to the United States Constitution, prohibiting the use of poll taxes in national elections, is ratified.

1968 - North Korea seizes the USS Pueblo, claiming the ship violated their territorial waters while spying.

1973 - President Richard Nixon announces that a peace accord has been reached in Vietnam.

1973 - A volcanic eruption devastates Heimaey in the Vestmannaeyjar chain of islands off the south coast of Iceland.

1977 - The first segment of the Roots mini-series airs on ABC.

1978 - Sweden becomes the first nation in the world to ban aerosol sprays, believed to be damaging to earth's protective ozone layer.

1985 - O.J. Simpson becomes the first Heisman Trophy winner elected to the Football Hall of Fame.

1986 - The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inducts its first members: Chuck Berry, James Brown, Ray Charles, Fats Domino, Everly Brothers, Buddy Holly, Jerry Lee Lewis and Elvis Presley.

1996 - The first version of the Java programming language is released.

1997 - Madeleine Albright becomes the first woman to serve as United States Secretary of State.

1999 - Australian missionary Graham Stewart Stains and his two sons are burned alive by radical Hindus while sleeping in their car in Eastern India.

2002 - "American Taliban" John Walker Lindh returns to the United States under FBI custody.

2002 - Reporter Daniel Pearl is kidnapped -- and subsequently murdered -- in Karachi, Pakistan.

2005 - Viktor Yushchenko is sworn in as the third President of Ukraine in Kiev, Ukraine.

2006 - Stephen Harper's Conservative Party wins the most seats in the Canadian federal election. Harper becomes the 22nd Prime Minister of Canada with a minority government.


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