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1014 - Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat on the Bulgarian army, but his subsequent savage treatment of 15,000 prisoners reportedly causes Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria to die of shock.

1030 - King Olaf II fights and dies in the Battle of Stiklestad, trying to regain his Norwegian throne from the Danes.

1565 - Mary Stuart, widowed, marries Lord Darnley, duke of Albany.

1567 - James VI is crowned King of Scotland at Stirling.

1588 - Battle of Gravelines: The Spanish Armada is defeated by an English naval force under command of Lord Charles Howard and Sir Francis Drake off the coast of Gravelines, France.

1693 - War of the Grand Alliance: Battle of Landen - France wins a Pyrrhic victory over Allied forces in the Netherlands.

1793 - John Graves Simcoe decides to build a fort and settlement at Toronto, having sailed into the bay there.

1830 - Abdication of Charles X of France.

1836 - Inauguration of the Arc de Triomphe in Paris.

1847 - Cumberland School of Law founded in Lebanon, Tennessee, USA. At the end of 1847 only 15 law schools exist in the United States.

1848 - "De?teapt?-te, române!" ("Wake up, O, Romania!", Romania's national anthem) is first sung in Râmnicu Vâlcea during the 1848 Revolution.

1848 - Irish Potato Famine: Tipperary Revolt - In Tipperary, an unsuccessful nationalist revolt against British rule is put down by police.

1851 - Annibale de Gasparis discovers asteroid 15 Eunomia.


1858 - United States and Japan sign the Harris Treaty.

1864 - American Civil War: Confederate spy Belle Boyd is arrested by Union troops and detained at the Old Capitol Prison in Washington, DC.

1899 - The First Hague Convention is signed.

1900 - In Italy, King Umberto I of Italy is assassinated by Italian-born anarchist Gaetano Bresci.

1907 - Sir Robert Baden-Powell founds the Boy Scouts with the first Scout camp at Brownsea Island. The camp ran from August 1-9, 1907.

1920 - Construction of the Link River Dam begins as part of the Klamath Reclamation Project.

1921 - Adolf Hitler becomes leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party.

1932 - Great Depression: In Washington, DC, U.S. troops disperse the last of the "Bonus Army" of World War I veterans.

1940 - Beginning of the Blitz air attack by Nazi Germany on Great Britain.

1945 - The BBC Light Programme radio station was launched for mainstream light entertainment and music.

1947 - After being shut off on November 9, 1946 for a memory upgrade, ENIAC, the world's first all-electronic digital computer, is reactivated. It will remain in continuous operation until October 2, 1955.

1948 - After a hiatus of 12 years caused by World War II, the first Summer Olympics opened in London, United Kingdom.

1954 - The Fellowship of the Ring, the first part of The Lord of the Rings, is published in the UK.


1957 - The International Atomic Energy Agency is established.

1958 - The U.S. Congress formally creates the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

1959 - First congressional elections in Hawaii as a state of the Union.

1965 - Vietnam War: The first 4,000 101st Airborne Division paratroopers arrive in Vietnam, landing at Cam Ranh Bay.

1966 - Musician Bob Dylan crashes his Triumph motorcycle in upstate New York. He goes into seclusion for over a year before reemerging and reinventing himself artistically.

1967 - Vietnam War: Off the coast of North Vietnam the USS Forrestal catches on fire in the worst US naval disaster since World War II, killing 134.

1967 - At the fourth day of celebrating its 400th anniversary, the city of Caracas, Venezuela was shaken by an earthquake, leaving approximately 500 dead.

1976 - In New York City, the "Son of Sam" kills one person and seriously wounds another in the first of a series of attacks.

1981 - Lady Diana Spencer marries Charles, Prince of Wales.

1987 - British PM Margaret Thatcher and French president François Mitterrand sign the agreement to build the tunnel under the English Channel (Eurotunnel).

1993 - The Israeli Supreme Court acquits accused Nazi death camp guard John Demjanjuk of all charges and he is set free.

1996 - The controversial child protection portion of the Communications Decency Act (1996) is struck down as too broad by a U.S. federal court.

2004 - U.S. Senator John F. Kerry of Massachusetts accepts the Democratic nomination for President of the United States at the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston, Massachusetts.

2005 - Astronomers discover 10th planet.


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