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1325 - Alfonso IV becomes King of Portugal.

1558 - France takes Calais, the last continental possession of England.

1566 - Pius V becomes Pope.

1598 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia.

1608 - Fire destroys Jamestown, Virginia.

1610 - Galileo Galilei observes the four largest moons of Jupiter for the first time. He named them and in turn the four are called the Galilean moons.

1782 - The first American commercial bank opens (Bank of North America).

1785 - Frenchman Jean-Pierre Blanchard and American John Jeffries travel from Dover, England to Calais, France in a gas balloon

1797 - It is the birthday of the flag of Italy.

1835 - HMS Beagle anchors off the Chonos Archipelago.

1861 - Revised Constitution of the U.S. state of Alabama.

1894 - W.K. Dickson receives a patent for motion picture film.

1904 - The distress signal "CQD" is established only to be replaced two years later by "SOS."


1922 - Dáil ÿireann ratifies the Anglo-Irish Treaty by 64-57 votes.

1924 - George Gershwin completes Rhapsody in Blue.

1924 - The International Hockey Federation (FIH) is founded in Paris by seven member states: Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, Spain, and Switzerland.

1927 - First transatlantic telephone call - New York City to London.

1927 - The Harlem Globetrotters play their first game.

1935 - World War II: Benito Mussolini and French Foreign Minister Pierre Laval sign the Italo-French agreements.

1942 - World War II: Siege of the Bataan Peninsula begins.

1945 - British General Bernard Montgomery holds a press conference in which he claims credit for victory in the Battle of the Bulge.

1950 - A fire at the Mercy Hospital in Davenport, Iowa kills 41 people.

1953 - President Harry Truman announces that the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb.

1954 - Georgetown-IBM experiment, the first public demonstration of a machine translation system, was held in New York at the head office of IBM.

1959 - The United States recognizes the new Cuban government of Fidel Castro.

1979 - Phnom Penh fell to the advancing Vietnamese troops, driving out Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge.


1980 - President Jimmy Carter authorizes legislation giving $1.5 billion in loans to bail out Chrysler Corporation.

1984 - Brunei becomes the sixth member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

1989 - Akihito, Emperor of Japan during World War II, dies.

1990 - The Leaning Tower of Pisa is closed to the public due to safety concerns.

1999 - The impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton begins.

2006 - Singaporean composer Bernard Tan's Violin Concerto received its world premiere performance by the Singapore Symphony Orchestra and violinist Lynnette Seah, conducted by Lan Shui.


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