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1456 - A retrial verdict acquits Joan of Arc of heresy 25 years after her death.

1534 - European colonization of the Americas: First known exchange between Europeans and natives of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, in New Brunswick.

1543 - French troops invade Luxembourg.

1668 - Isaac Newton received an MA from Trinity College, Cambridge.

1777 - American Revolutionary War: Battle of Hubbardton

1798 - Quasi-War: The U.S. Congress rescinds treaties with France sparking the 'war.'

1799 - Ranjit Singh's men take up their positions outside Lahore.

1807 - Napoleonic Wars: Peace of Tilsit between France, Prussia and Russia ends the Fourth Coalition.

1846 - Mexican War: American troops occupy Monterey and Yerba Buena, thus beginning the United States annexation of California.

1863 - United States begins first military draft; exemptions cost $100

1865 - American Civil War: Four conspirators in the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln were hanged.

1898 - History of United States overseas expansion: President William McKinley signs the Newlands Resolution annexing Hawaii as a territory of the United States.

1915 - A Great Gorge and International Railway trolley with an extreme overload of 157 passengers crashed near Queenston, Ontario, killing 15.


1917 - Russian Revolution: Prince Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov forms Provisional Government in Russia after the deposing of the Tsar Nicholas II.

1930 - Industrialist Henry J. Kaiser begins construction of the Boulder Dam (now known as Hoover Dam).

1937 - Sino-Japanese War: Battle of Lugou Bridge - Japanese forces invade Beijing, China.

1941 - World War II: American forces land in Iceland to forestall an invasion by Germany.

1946 - Mother Frances Xavier Cabrini becomes the first American to be canonized.

1946 - Howard Hughes nearly dies when his XF-11 spy plane prototype crashes in a Beverly Hills neighborhood.

1947 - Downed UFO believed to be found in the Roswell UFO incident.

1954 - In Memphis, Tennessee, WHBQ becomes the first radio station to air an Elvis Presley record.

1958 - President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the Alaska Statehood Act into United States law.

1959 - 14:28 UT Venus occults the star Regulus. This rare event was used to determine the diameter of Venus and the structure of the Venusian atmosphere.

1969 - In Canada, the Official Languages Act is adopted making the French language equal to the English language throughout the Federal government.

1978 - The Solomon Islands become independent from the United Kingdom.

1983 - Cold War: Samantha Smith, a U.S. schoolgirl, flies to the Soviet Union at the invitation of Secretary General Yuri Andropov


1991 - Yugoslav Wars: Brioni Agreement ended ten-day independence war in Slovenia against the rest of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

1994 - Aden is occupied by troops from North Yemen, completing the reunification of Yemen.

2003 - The United Communist Party of Armenia was formed.

2004 - The last patent on the LZW compression algorithm (in Canada) expired.

2005 - A series of four terrorist explosions occur on London's transport system killing 52 people, plus four suicide bombers.

2005 - Influenced by Live 8, the G8 leaders pledged to double 2004 levels of aid to Africa from US$25 to US$50 billion by the year 2010.


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