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1099 - First Crusade: 15,000 starving Christian soldiers march in religious procession around Jerusalem as its Muslim defenders mock them.

1283 - War of the Sicilian Vespers: Battle of Malta

1497 - Vasco da Gama sets sail on first direct European voyage to India.

1663 - Charles II of England grants John Clarke a Royal Charter to Rhode Island.

1680 - The first confirmed tornado in America kills a servant at Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1709 - Great Northern War: Battle of Poltava: Peter I of Russia defeats Charles XII of Sweden at Poltava thus effectively ending Sweden's role as a major power in Europe.

1716 - Great Northern War: Battle of Dynekilen

1758 - French and Indian War: French forces hold Fort Carillon against British at Ticonderoga, New York.

1760 - French and Indian War: Battle of the Ristigouche - British defeat French forces in last naval battle in New France.

1775 - The Olive Branch Petition is adopted by the Continental Congress of the Thirteen Colonies.

1776 - The Liberty Bell was rung to summon citizens of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania for the reading of the Declaration of Independence by the Continental Congress.

1822 - Chippewas turn over huge tract of land in Ontario to the United Kingdom.

1859 - King Charles XV / Carl IV accedes to the throne of Sweden-Norway.


1876 - White supremacists kill five Black Republicans in Hamburg, SC.

1889 - The first issue of the Wall Street Journal is published.

1889 - At the last championship bare-knuckle boxing match, John L. Sullivan defeats Jake Kilrain after 75 rounds.

1892 - St. John's, Newfoundland was devastated in the Great Fire of 1892.

1896 - William Jennings Bryan delivers his Cross of Gold speech advocating bimetalism at the 1896 Democratic National Convention in Chicago.

1898 - The shooting death of crime boss Soapy Smith releases Skagway, Alaska from his iron grip.

1932 - The Dow Jones Industrial Average reaches its lowest level of the Great Depression, bottoming out at 41.22.

1947 - Reports are broadcast that a UFO has crash landed in Roswell, New Mexico.

1966 - King Mwambutsa IV Bangiriceng of Burundi was deposed by his son Prince Charles Ndizi.

1969 - IBM CICS is made generally available for the 360 mainframe computer.

1982 - Senegalese Trotskyist political party LCT is legally recognized.

1992 - Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe Helsinki Summit creates the office of High Commissioner on National Minorities (HCNM).

1997 - Mayo Clinic researchers warn that the dieting-drug "fen-phen" can cause severe heart and lung damage.


1997 - NATO invites the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland to join the alliance in 1999.

1999 - Allen Lee Davis is executed by electrocution by the state of Florida. That is the last use of the Electric Chair for capital punishment in Florida.


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