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331 BC - Greek Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela.

959 - Edgar the Peaceable becomes king of all England.

965 - John XIII becomes Pope.

1788 - Nguyen Hue declares himself emperor of Vietnam.

1791 - First session of the French Legislative Assembly.

1795 - Belgium is conquered by France.

1800 - Spain cedes Louisiana to France via the Treaty of San Ildefonso.

1811 - The first steamboat to sail the Mississippi River arrives in New Orleans, Louisiana.

1814 - Opening of the Congress of Vienna, intended to redraw the Europe's political map after the defeat of Napoleon the previous spring.

1827 - The Russian army under Ivan Paskevich storms Yerevan, ending a millennium of Muslim domination in Armenia.

1829 - South African College is founded in Cape Town, South Africa; later to separate into the University of Cape Town and the South African College Schools.

1843 - News of the World began publication in London.

1847 - German inventor and industrialist Werner von Siemens founds Siemens AG & Halske.


1854 - The watch company founded in 1850 in Roxbury by Aaron Lufkin Dennison relocates to Waltham, Massachusetts, to become the Waltham Watch Company, a pioneer in the American System of Watch Manufacturing.

1869 - Austria issues the world's first postcards.

1880 - John Philip Sousa becomes leader of the United States Marine Corps Band.

1880 - First electric lamp factory opened by Thomas Edison.

1885 - United States begins special-delivery mail service.

1886 - The U.S. mint in Carson City, Nevada, closes.

1887 - Balochistan conquered by the British Empire.

1890 - The Yosemite National Park is established by the U.S. Congress.

1891 - In the U.S. state of California, Stanford University opens its doors.

1898 - Czar Nicholas II expels Jews from major Russian cities.

1898 - The Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration is founded under the name k.u.k. Exportakademie.

1903 - Baseball: The Boston Americans play the Pittsburgh Pirates in the first game of the modern World Series.

1905 - Franti?ek Pavlík is killed in a demonstration in Prague, inspiring Leo? Janá?ek to the piano composition 1. X. 1905.


1908 - Ford introduces the Model T car.

1910 - A large bomb destroys the Los Angeles Times building in downtown Los Angeles, California, killing 21.

1918 - World War I: Arab forces under T. E. Lawrence (aka "Lawrence of Arabia") capture Damascus.

1928 - The Soviet Union introduces its first Five-Year Plan.

1931 - The George Washington Bridge linking New Jersey and New York opens.

1931 - The original Waldorf-Astoria Hotel is opened in New York.

1936 - Francisco Franco is named head of the Nationalist government of Spain.

1938 - Germany annexes the Sudetenland.

1939 - After a one-month Siege of Warsaw, hostile forces entered the city.

1940 - The Pennsylvania Turnpike, often considered the first superhighway in the United States, opens to traffic.

1942 - USS Grouper torpedoes Lisbon Maru not knowing she was carrying British PoWs from Hong Kong

1943 - World War II: Naples falls to Allied soldiers.

1946 - Nazi leaders sentenced at Nuremberg Trials.

1949 - The People's Republic of China is declared by Mao Zedong.

1957 - First appearance of "In God We Trust" on U.S. paper currency.

1958 - NASA created to replace NACA.

1960 - Nigeria gains independence from the United Kingdom.

1961 - East and West Cameroon merge as Federal Republic of Cameroon.

1961 - Baseball: Roger Maris sets new record for most home runs in a single season with 61, surpassing Babe Ruth's previous mark of 60.

1962 - Johnny Carson begins a 30-year run as the host of The Tonight Show starring Johnny Carson at NBC.

1963 - California State Board of Education created.

1964 - The Free Speech Movement is launched on the campus of University of California, Berkeley.

1964 - Japanese Shinkansen ("bullet trains") begin high-speed rail service from Tokyo to Osaka.

1965 - Apostasia, a political move in Greece designed by the former King of Greece Constantine II and executed by a group of politicians (led by the later PM of Greece Constantine Mitsotakis) who have betrayed and overthrown the Prime Minister George Papandreou in Greece in favour of the formerly King of Greece.

1965 - General Suharto crushes an attempted coup in Indonesia.

1968 - The Guyanese government takes over the British Guiana Broadcasting Service (BGBS).

1969 - The Concorde supersonic transport plane breaks the sound barrier for the first time.

1971 - Walt Disney World opens in Orlando, Florida, United States.

1975 - The Seychelles gain internal self-government. The Ellice Islands split from Gilbert Islands and take the name Tuvalu. Thrilla in Manila: Muhammad Ali defeats Joe Frazier in a boxing match in Manila, Philippines.

1977 - Brazilian soccer star Pelé retires.

1978 - The Voltaic Revolutionary Communist Party is founded.

1979 - The United States returns sovereignty of the Panama canal to Panama.

1979 - Activision founded

1982 - Helmut Kohl replaces Helmut Schmidt as Chancellor of Germany through a Constructive Vote of No Confidence.

1982 - EPCOT Center opens at Walt Disney World in Florida, United States.

1983 - Horizons opens at EPCOT Center, Walt Disney World in Florida, United States.

1985 - The Israeli air force bombs PLO Headquarters in Tunis.

1988 - Mikhail Gorbachev is named head of the Supreme Soviet.

1993 - Polly Klaas is kidnapped by Richard Allen Davis during a slumber party at her Petaluma, California, home; Davis will be sentenced to death for her murdering Klaas.

1992 - Cartoon Network debuts.

2004 - Baseball: Seattle Mariners outfielder Ichiro Suzuki makes his 258th hit of the season, breaking George Sisler's 84-year-old single-season record.

2005 - Almost exactly three years after a similar event, a bombing kills 23 people in Bali.


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