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1253 - Mindaugas is crowned king of Lithuania.

1348 - Papal bull of Pope Clement VI protecting Jews during the Black Death.

1483 - Richard III is crowned king of England.

1484 - Portuguese sea captain Diogo Cão finds the mouth of Congo River.

1495 - First Italian War: Battle of Fornovo Charles VIII defeats the the Holy League, but ultimately ends his attempted conquest of Italy.

1535 - Sir Thomas More, author of Utopia and one time Lord Chancellor of England, is executed for treason by King Henry VIII after refusing to agree to Henrys' decision to separate the English church from the Roman Catholic church.

1560 - The Treaty of Edinburgh is signed by Scotland and England.

1573 - Córdoba, Argentina is founded by Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera.

1609 - Bohemia is granted freedom of religion.

1630 - Thirty-Years War: 4,000 Swedish troops under Gustavus Adolphus land in Pomerania, Germany.

1777 - American Revolutionary War: Battle of Ticonderoga: Due to a bombardment by British artillery under General John Burgoyne, American forces retreat from Fort Ticonderoga, New York.

1785 - The dollar is unanimously chosen as the monetary unit for the United States.

1799 - Ranjit Singh's 25,000 men start march towards Lahore.


1801 - Battle of Algeciras: The French navy defeats the British Royal Navy.

1854 - In Jackson, Michigan, the first convention of the U.S. Republican Party is held.

1885 - Louis Pasteur successfully tests his vaccine against rabies. The patient is Joseph Meister, a boy who was bitten by a rabid dog.

1887 - David Kalakaua, monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii, is forced at gunpoint, at the hands of Americans, to sign the Bayonet Constitution giving Americans more power in Hawaii while stripping Hawaiian citizens of their rights.

1892 - Dadabhai Naoroji elected as first Indian Member of Parliament in Britain.

1892 - 3,800 striking steelworkers engage in a day-long battle with Pinkerton agents during the Homestead Strike, leaving 10 dead and dozens wounded.

1893 - The small town of Pomeroy, Iowa is nearly destroyed by a tornado that kills 71 people and injures 200.

1905 - Alfred Deakin becomes Prime Minister of Australia for the second time.

1908 - Robert Peary sets sail for the Arctic on the expedition on which he later reaches the North Pole.

1917 - World War I: Arabian troops led by Lawrence of Arabia and Auda ibu Tayi capture Aqaba from the Turks during the Arab Revolt.

1919 - The British dirigible R34 lands in New York, completing the first crossing of the Atlantic by an airship.

1928 - The world's ten largest hailstones fall in Potter, Nebraska.

1933 - The first Major League Baseball All-Star Game is played in Chicago's Comiskey Park. The American League defeats the National League, 4 to 2.


1939 - Holocaust: The last remaining Jewish enterprises in Germany are closed.

1942 - Anne Frank and her family went into hiding in the "Secret Annex" above her father's office in an Amsterdam warehouse.

1944 - The Hartford Circus Fire, one of America's worst fire disasters, kills approximately 168 people and injures over 700 in Hartford, Connecticut.

1957 - Althea Gibson wins the Wimbledon championships, becoming the first black athlete to do so.

1957 - John Lennon and Paul McCartney of The Beatles meet for the first time at the Woolton Parish Church Garden Fete, Liverpool.

1964 - Malawi declares its independence from the United Kingdom.

1966 - Malawi becomes a republic, with Hastings Banda as the first President.

1967 - Biafran War: Nigerian forces invade Biafra, beginning the war.

1974 - The radio program A Prairie Home Companion makes its first live broadcast.

1975 - The Comoros declare independence from France.

1985 - The National Wrestling Alliance has its first ever Great American Bash Pay-Per View.

1988 - The Piper Alpha drilling platform in the North Sea is destroyed by explosions and fires. 167 oil workers are killed, making it the world's worst offshore oil disaster.

1988 - The Israeli 405 Bus slaughter in which 14 bus passengers were killed as an Arab assaulted the bus driver as the bus was driving by the edge of a cliff.

2003 - The Corsicans rejected a referendum for increased autonomy from France by a very thin majority: 50.98 percent against, and 49.02 percent for.

2005 - Time Magazine reporter Matt Cooper agrees to testify to a grand jury that Karl Rove revealed to him Valerie Plame's secret CIA identity.

2005 - Bob Geldof and Bono meet with the G8 in Gleneagles to discuss increasing aid to Africa. Afterwards, both make appearances at the Edinburgh 50,000 concert, a last concert in the Live 8 series.

2005 - The International Olympic Committee announced that London will host the 2012 Summer Olympics

2006 - The Nathula Pass between India and China, sealed during the Sino-Indian War, re-opens for trade after 44 years.

2006 - Felipe Calderon is elected President of Mexico after a very close election.


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