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1302 - Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag in Dutch) - a coalition around the Flemish cities defeats the king of France's huge knightly army.

1346 - Charles IV of Luxembourg elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

1405 - Chinese fleet commander Zheng He set sail to explore the world for the first time.

1576 - Martin Frobisher sights Greenland.

1616 - Samuel de Champlain returns to Quebec.

1735 - Mathematical calculations suggest it was on this day that Pluto moved from the ninth to the eighth most distant planet from the Sun for the last time before 1979.

1740 - Pogrom: Jews are expelled from Little Russia.

1750 - Halifax, Nova Scotia almost completely destroyed by fire.

1776 - Captain James Cook begins third voyage.

1789 - Jacques Necker dismissed as Finance Minister for France sparking the storming of the Bastille.

1796 - The U.S. takes possession of Detroit from Great Britain under terms of the Jay Treaty.

1798 - The United States Marine Corps is re-established; they had been disbanded after the American Revolutionary War.

1804 - Vice President of the United States Aaron Burr kills Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton in a duel.


1811 - Italian scientist Amedeo Avogadro publishes his memoir about molecular content of gases.

1848 - The Waterloo railway station in London opens.

1859 - A Tale Of Two Cities by Charles Dickens is published.

1864 - Confederate forces attempt an invasion of Washington, D.C.

1889 - Tijuana, Mexico was founded

1893 - The first cultured pearl is obtained by Kokichi Mikimoto.

1895 - The brothers Lumière show film for scientists.

1897 - Salomon August Andrée leaves Spitsbergen to try to reach the North pole by balloon. He later crashes and dies.

1914 - Babe Ruth debuts in Major league baseball.

1919 - Eight-hour working day and free Sunday made into law in the Netherlands.

1921 - Truce called in the Irish War of Independence; see Irish calendar.

1921 - Former US President William Howard Taft sworn in as 10th Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court, becoming the only person to ever be both President and Chief Justice.

1921 - Mongolia becomes independent (from China).


1936 - Triborough Bridge in New York City is opened to traffic.

1940 - World War II: Vichy France regime formally established. Henri Philippe Pétain becomes Prime Minister of France.

1943 - World War II: Allied invasion of Sicily - German troops launch a counter-attack on Allied forces in Sicily.

1944 - Franklin D. Roosevelt says he will run for a fourth term as President of the United States.

1950 - Pakistan joins the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank.

1955 - The phrase In God We Trust is added to all US currency.

1957 - Prince Karim Husseini Aga Khan IV inherites the office of Imamat as the 49th Imam of Shia Imami Ismaili worldwide, after the passing away of Sir Sultan Mahommed Shah Aga Khan III

1960 - To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee is first published.

1962 - First transatlantic satellite television transmission.

1971 - Copper mines in Chile nationalised.

1973 - A Brazilian Boeing 707 crashes near Paris on approach to Orly Airport, killing 123 people of the 134 on-board.

1975 - Chinese archeologists discover a large burial site with 6,000 clay statutes of warriors from 221 BC.

1977 - Martin Luther King is posthumously awarded the Medal of Freedom.

1978 - A truck carrying liquid gas crashes and explodes at a coastal campsite in Tarragona, Spain killing 216 tourists.

1979 - The space station Skylab returns to Earth.

1983 - A Boeing 727 crashes into hilly terrain after a tail strike in Cuenca, Ecuador, claiming 119 lives.

1987 - According to the United Nations, the world population crosses the 5,000,000,000 mark.

1991 - A Nationair DC-8 crashed during an emergency landing at Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, killing 261. The Canadian charter was ferrying Hajj pilgrims on behalf of Nigeria Airways.

1991 - Total solar eclipse in Hawaii.

1995 - Full diplomatic relations are established between the United States and Vietnam.

1995 - Srebrenica Genocide: Serb army from Yugoslavia and Bosnia, capture the Bosniak town of Srebrenica. More than eight thousands inhabitants are murdered. It is generally regarded to be the most horrific event in recent European history.

1995 - A Cubana de Aviacion Antonov An-24 crashes into the Caribbean off southeast Cuba killing 44 people.

2003 - Lahore-Delhi bus service resumed after suspension of 18 months.

2004 - CIA Director George Tenet leaves his position at the CIA.

2006 - Microsoft's official support of Windows 98 and Windows Me ends.


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