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193 - Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is assassinated in his palace.

1283 - Treaty of Rheinfelden: Duke Rudolph II of Austria has to waive his right to the Duchies of Austria and Styria.

1485 - Matthias of Hungary takes Vienna in his conquest of Austria (from Frederick III) and makes the city his capital.

1495 - Friar John Cor records the first known batch of scotch whisky.

1533 - Henry VIII of England's new wife, Anne Boleyn, is crowned as queen.

1660 - Mary Dyer is hanged in Boston, Massachusetts, for defying a law banning Quakers from the colony. She is considered by some to be the last religious martyr in what would become the United States.

1779 - American Revolutionary War: Benedict Arnold is court-martialed for malfeasance in his treatment of government property.

1792 - Kentucky becomes the 15th state of the United States.

1796 - Tennessee becomes the 16th state of the United States.

1812 - War of 1812: U.S. President James Madison asks the Congress to declare war on the United Kingdom.

1813 - The United States Navy gains its motto as the mortally wounded commander of the frigate USS Chesapeake, Capt. James Lawrence, cries out, "Don't give up the ship!"

1815 - Napoleon swears fidelity to the Constitution of France.

1831 - James Clark Ross discovers the position of the North Magnetic Pole on the Boothia Peninsula.


1847 - Zeta Psi International Fraternity is founded at New York University.

1855 - American adventurer William Walker conquers Nicaragua and reinstates slavery.

1862 - American Civil War: Battle of Fair Oaks ends, with both sides claiming victory.

1869 - Thomas Edison of Boston, Massachusetts, receives a patent for his electric voting machine.

1879 - Napoleon Eugene, Prince of France, is killed in the Anglo-Zulu War.

1890 - The United States Census Bureau begins using Herman Hollerith's tabulating machine to count census returns.

1898 - The Trans-Mississippi Exposition world's fair opens in Omaha, Nebraska, United States.

1907 - Cricket: Colin Blythe takes 17 wickets for 48 runs against Northamptonshire at Northampton in one day. It is the best analysis ever recorded either for a county cricket match or a single day's bowling, and not bettered in an entire modern first-class cricket match until Jim Laker's 19 for 90 against Australia in 1956.

1909 - The Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition world's fair opens in Seattle, Washington, United States.

1910 - Robert Falcon Scott's South Pole expedition leaves England.

1918 - World War I: Battle for Belleau Wood begins.

1921 - Tulsa Race Riot: Civil unrest in Tulsa, Oklahoma leads to an official death toll of 39 -- but a commission authorized by the Oklahoma State Legislature in 1997 concludes that the actual toll may be 150-300.

1922 - Official founding of the Royal Ulster Constabulary.


1925 - Lou Gehrig of the New York Yankees plays the first game in his record streak of 2,130 consecutive games, an endurance record in major league baseball that stands until Cal Ripken, Jr. breaks it in 1995.

1935 - The first driving tests are introduced in Britain.

1938 - Baseball: Protective batting helmets are worn by batters for the very first time.

1941 - World War II: Battle of Crete ends as Crete capitulates to Germany.

1942 - World War II: The Liberty Brigade, a Warsaw underground newspaper, published the news of the death camp killings for the very first time. It told the story of Emanuel Ringelblum, who escaped from Chelmno after being forced to bury the exterminated bodies.

1943 - A civilian flight from Lisbon to London is shot down by the Germans during World War II, killing all aboard, including actor Leslie Howard.

1958 - Charles De Gaulle is brought out of retirement to lead France by decree for six months.

1962 - In the nation's only civilian execution in its history, Adolf Eichmann is hanged in Israel, having been found guilty of crimes against humanity during World War II.

1967 - The Beatles album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band is released. It knocks Headquarters by The Monkees out of the #1 spot and remains there all summer long.

1967 - Don Dunstan becomes Premier of South Australia.

1974 - Flixborough disaster: An explosion at a chemical plant in Flixborough, UK, kills 28 people.

1978 - The first international applications under the Patent Cooperation Treaty are filed.

1979 - The first black-led government of Rhodesia in 90 years takes power, ousting Ian Smith and changing the country's name to Zimbabwe.

1980 - The Cable News Network (CNN) begins broadcasting.

1990 - U.S. President George H. W. Bush and Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev sign a treaty to end chemical weapon production and start destroying each of their nation's stockpiles.

2000 - The multilateral Patent Law Treaty (PLT) is signed.

2001 - Crown Prince Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev of Nepal slaughters his family during a royal dinner. Diprenda was also shot, and was proclaimed king in his hospital bed where he died three days later.

2003 - The People's Republic of China begins filling the reservoir behind the massive Three Gorges Dam, raising the water level near the dam over 100 metres.

2005 - The Dutch referendum on the European Constitution results in its rejection.


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