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241 BC - First Punic War: Battle of the Aegates Islands - The Romans sink the Carthaginian fleet; end of First Punic War.

1496 - Christopher Columbus leaves Hispaniola for Spain, ending his second visit to the Western Hemisphere.

1629 - Charles I of England dissolves Parliament, starting the Eleven Years Tyranny in which there was no parliament.

1735 - an agreement between Nadir Shah and Paul I of Russia was signed near Ganja and the Russian troops were withdrawn from Baku.

1804 - Louisiana Purchase: In St. Louis, a formal ceremony is conducted to transfer ownership of Louisiana Territory from France to the United States.

1814 - Napoleon I of France is defeated at the Battle of Laon in France.

1831 - The French Foreign Legion is established by King Louis-Philippe to support his war in Algeria.

1848 - The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is ratified by the United States Senate, ending the Mexican-American War.

1861 - El Hadj Umar Tall seizes the city of Segou, destroying the Bambara Empire of Mali.

1864 - Montana vigilantes hang Jack Slade.

1864 - American Civil War: The Red River Campaign begins as Union troops reach Alexandria, Louisiana.

1876 - Alexander Graham Bell makes the first successful telephone call by saying "Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you."

1880 - Members of the Salvation Army land in the United States and begin operations.


1891 - Almon Strowger, an undertaker in Topeka, Kansas, patents the strowger switch, a device which led to the automation of telephone circuit switching.

1893 - Côte d'Ivoire becomes a French colony.

1902 - Second Boer War: South African Boers win their last battle over British forces, with the capture of a British general and 200 of his men.

1902 - A United States court of appeals rules that Thomas Edison did not invent the movie camera.

1902 - Tochangri, Turkey, is completely destroyed by an earthquake.

1906 - The Courrières mine disaster, Europe's worst ever, kills 1099 miners in Northern France.

1912 - Yuan Shikai is sworn in as the second Provisional President of the Republic of China.

1926 - The first Book-of-the-Month-Club selection is produced.

1933 - An earthquake in Long Beach, California kills 120 people.

1945 - The Army Air Force firebombs Tokyo, and the resulting firestorm kills more than 100,000 people, mostly civilians.

1948 - The Indian Union Muslim League is founded, by remnants of the old Muslim League.

1951 - Henri Queuille becomes Prime Minister of France.

1952 - Fulgencio Batista leads a successful coup in Cuba.


1959 - Tibet leads an unsuccessful uprising against ten years of Chinese occupation in Lhasa. Thousands massacred by the occupying Chinese army.

1964 - The Ford Mustang is first produced by the Ford Motor Company.

1966 - Princess Beatrix of the Netherlands marries Claus von Amsberg.

1969 - In Memphis, Tennessee, James Earl Ray pleads guilty to assassinating Martin Luther King Jr. Ray would later retract his guilty plea.

1970 - Vietnam War: Capt. Ernest Medina is charged with My Lai war crimes.

1975 - Vietnam War: North Vietnamese troops attack Ban Me Thout, South Vietnam, on their way to capturing Saigon.

1977 - Rings of Uranus: Astronomers discover rings around Uranus.

1982 - The United States places an embargo on Libyan petroleum imports because of their support of terrorist groups.

1982 - Syzygy: all 9 planets align on the same side of the Sun.

1987 - The Holy See condemns the practice of surrogate motherhood, along with test-tube babies and artificial insemination.

1990 - In Haiti, Prosper Avril is ousted 18 months after seizing power in a coup.

1991 - Gulf War: Operation Phase Echo - 540,000 American troops begin to leave the Persian Gulf.

1996 - The "Summit of Peacemakers" takes place in Egypt.

1997 - Buffy the Vampire Slayer premieres on the WB network.

1998 - American troops stationed in the Persian Gulf begin to receive the first vaccinations against anthrax.

2000 - The NASDAQ stock market index peaks at 5048.62, signaling the beginning of the end of the dot-com boom.

2004 - Six Flags sells 8 of its theme parks to private investors.

2006 - Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter arrives at Mars.

2006 - Mass unrest by the PCC started in São Paulo, the biggest city in Brazil. Which would eventualy kill more than 152 people


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