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1190 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Saleph River while leading an army to Jerusalem.

1619 - Battle of Záblatí, a turning point in the Bohemian Revolt of the Thirty Years' War

1692 - Salem witch trials: Bridget Bishop is hanged at Gallows Hill near Salem, Massachusetts, for "certaine Detestable Arts called Witchcraft & Sorceries".

1719 - Battle of Glen Shiel

1793 - The Jardin des Plantes museum opens in Paris (becoming, a year later, the first public zoo).

1793 - French Revolution: Following arrests of Girondin leaders the Jacobins gain control of the Committee of Public Safety installing the revolutionary dictatorship.

1801 - Tripoli declares war on the United States for refusing tribute.

1829 - First Boat Race between Oxford and Cambridge.

1846 - Mexican-American War: The California Republic declares independence from Mexico.

1854 - The first class of United States Naval Academy students graduate.

1864 - American Civil War: Battle of Brice's Crossroads ? Confederate troops under Nathan Bedford Forrest defeat a much larger Union force led by General Samuel D. Sturgis in Mississippi.

1871 - Captain McLane Tilton leads 109 Marines in naval attack on Han River forts on Kanghwa Island Shinmiyangyo, Korea.

1886 - Eruption of Mount Tarawera in New Zealand, killing 153 people and destroying the famous Pink and White Terraces.


1898 - US Marines land on the island of Cuba during the Spanish-American War.

1924 - Fascists kidnap and kill Italian socialist leader Giacomo Matteotti in Rome.

1925 - Inagural service for the United Church of Canada, a union of Presbyterian, Methodist, and Congregationalist churches held in Toronto arena

1935 - Alcoholics Anonymous is founded in Akron, Ohio, United States, by Bill Wilson and Dr. Robert Smith.

1940 - World War II: Italy declares war on France and the United Kingdom.

1940 - World War II: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt denounces Italy's actions with "Stab in the Back" speech from the graduation ceremonies of the University of Virginia.

1940 - World War II: German forces, under General Erwin Rommel, reach the English Channel.

1940 - World War II: Canada declares war on Italy.

1940 - World War II: Norway Surrenders to German forces.

1942 - World War II: Nazis burn the Czech village of Lidice as reprisal for the killing of Reinhard Heydrich.

1944 - World War II: 642 men, women and children are killed in the Oradour-sur-Glane Massacre in France.

1944 - In baseball, 15-year old Joe Nuxhall of the Cincinnati Reds becomes the youngest player ever in a major-league game.

1945 - Australian Imperial Forces landed in Brunei Bay to liberate Brunei.


1947 - Saab produces its first automobile.

1965 - Vietnam War: Battle of Dong Xoai begins.

1967 - Six-Day War ends: Israel and Syria agree to a cease-fire.

1967 - Argentina becomes a member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty.

1973 - John Paul Getty III, grandson of billionaire J. Paul Getty, is kidnapped in Rome, Italy.

1977 - James Earl Ray escapes from Brushy Mountain State Prison in Petros, Tennessee, but is recaptured on June 13.

1977 - Apple Computer ships its first Apple II personal computer.

1978 - Costa Rica becomes a member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty.

1980 - The African National Congress in South Africa publishes a call to fight from their imprisoned leader Nelson Mandela.

1980 - Percy Wood, president of United Airlines, is injured by an exploding package sent by the Unabomber.

1991 - In what was dubbed "The Mother of All Parades," New York City hosts a parade welcoming back troops from Operation Desert Storm.

1996 - Peace talks begin in Northern Ireland without Sinn Féin.

1997 - Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot orders the killing of his defense chief Son Sen and 11 of Sen's family members before Pol Pot flees his northern stronghold.

1999 - Kosovo War: NATO suspends its air strikes after Slobodan Milo?evi? agrees to withdraw Serbian forces from Kosovo.

2001 - Pope John Paul II canonized Saint Rafqa

2003 - The Spirit Rover is launched, beginning NASA's Mars Exploration Rover mission.


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