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627 - Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeated Emperor Khosrau II's Persian forces, commanded by General Rhahzadh.

1098 - First Crusade: Massacre of Ma'arrat al-Numan - Crusaders breach the town's walls and massacre about 20,000 inhabitants. After finding themselves with insufficient food, they resort to cannibalism.

1531 - Apparition of Our Lady of Guadalupe to Juan Diego in Mexico City.

1719 - The Boston Gazette is published for the first time.

1781 - American Revolutionary War: Second Battle of Ushant - A Royal Navy squadron, commanded by Rear Admiral Richard Kempenfelt in HMS Victory, defeats a French fleet.

1787 - Pennsylvania becomes the 2nd state to ratify the United States Constitution.

1862 - USS Cairo sunk on the Yazoo River, becoming the first armored ship to be sunk by an electrically detonated mine.

1870 - Joseph H. Rainey of South Carolina becomes the first black U.S. congressman.

1897 - Belo Horizonte, the first planned city of Brazil, is inaugurated.

1901 - Guglielmo Marconi receives the first trans-Atlantic radio signal at Signal Hill in St John's, Newfoundland.

1903 - The city of Fairfield, California is incorporated.

1911 - Delhi replaces Calcutta as the capital of India.

1915 - President of the Republic of China, Yuan Shikai, reinstates the monarchy and proclaims himself Emperor of China.


1917 - In Nebraska, Father Edward J. Flanagan founds Boys Town as a farm village for wayward boys.

1925 - The Majlis of Iran votes to crown Reza Khan as the new Shah of Persia.

1936 - Xi'an Incident: The Generalissimo of the Republic of China, Chiang Kai-shek was kidnapped by Zhang Xueliang.

1937 - Panay incident: Japanese aircraft shell and sink US gunboat Panay on the Yangtze River in China.

1939 - Winter War: Battle of Tolvajärvi - Finnish forces defeat those of the Soviet Union in their first major victory of the conflict.

1940 - Approximately 70 people are killed in the Marples Hotel, Fitzalan Square, Sheffield as a result of a German air raid.

1941 - World War II: Great Britain declares war on Bulgaria. Hungary and Romania declare war on the United States. India declares war on Japan.

1942 - A fire in a hostel in St. John's, Newfoundland kills 100 people.

1946 - A fire at a New York City ice plant spreads to a nearby tenement killing 37 people.

1948 - Malayan Emergency: Batang Kali Massacre - 14 members of the Scots Guards stationed in Malaysia allegedly massacre 24 unarmed civilians and set fire to the village.

1950 - Paula Ackerman, the first woman appointed to perform rabbinical functions in the United States, leads the congregation in her first services.

1963 - Kenya gains its independence from the United Kingdom.

1964 - Prime Minister Jomo Kenyatta became the first President of the Republic of Kenya.


1969 - Strategia della tensione: Piazza Fontana bombing - The offices of Banca Nazionale dell'Agricoltura in Piazza Fontana, Milan, are bombed.

1979 - Coup d'état of December Twelfth: South Korean military officer Chun Doo-hwan orders the arrest of Army Chief of Staff General Jeong Seung-hwa without authorization from President Choi Kyu-ha, alleging involvement in the assassination of ex-President Park Chung Hee.

1979 - Pakistan President Zia-ul-Haq conferred Nishan-e-Imtiaz on Nobel laureate Dr Abdus Salam.

1979 - Rhodesia changes its name to Zimbabwe.

1982 - Women's peace protest at Greenham Common - 30,000 women hold hands and form a human chain around the 14.5 km (9 mi) perimeter fence.

1985 - Arrow Air Flight 1285 crashes after takeoff in Gander, Newfoundland killing 256, including 248 members of the United States Army's 101st Airborne Division.

1988 - Clapham Junction rail crash killed 35 and injured 100's after two collisions of three commuter trains. One of the worst train crashes in Britain.

1990 - Pakistan became the 37th country in the world to send an expedition to Antarctica.

1996 - Uday Hussein is seriously injured in an assassination attempt.

2000 - The United States Supreme Court releases its decision in Bush v. Gore

2003 - Paul Martin, Jr. is sworn-in as the 21st Prime Minister of Canada.


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