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1055 - Victor II is consecrated pope.

1111 - Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor.

1180 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter.

1204 - The Fourth Crusade sacks Constantinople

1250 - The Seventh Crusade is defeated in Egypt, Louis IX of France is captured.

1256 - The Grand Union of the Augustinian order when Pope Alexander IV issues a papal bull Licet ecclesiae catholicae.

1598 - Henry IV of France issues the Edict of Nantes, allowing freedom of religion to the Huguenots.

1742 - George Frideric Handel's oratorio Messiah makes its world-premiere in Dublin, Ireland.

1829 - The British Parliament grants freedom of religion to Roman Catholics.

1849 - Hungary becomes a republic.

1861 - American Civil War: Fort Sumter surrenders to rebel forces.

1873 - Colfax Massacre.

1883 - Alferd Packer is convicted of murder.


1902 - James C. Penney opens his first store in Kemmerer, Wyoming.

1919 - The Establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.

1919 - Amritsar massacre: British and Gurkha troops massacre at least 379 unarmed demonstrators in Amritsar, India.

1921 - Foundation of the Spanish Communist Workers' Party.

1939 - In India, the Hindustani Lal Sena (Indian Red Army) is formed and vows to engage in armed struggle against the British.

1941 - Pact of neutrality between the USSR and Japan is signed.

1943 - World War II: The discovery of a mass grave of Polish prisoners-of-war executed by Soviet forces in the Katy? Forest Massacre was announced in Germany, driving a wedge between the Western Allies, the Polish government-in-exile in London, and the Soviet Union.

1943 - The Jefferson Memorial is dedicated in Washington, DC, on the 200th anniversary of Thomas Jefferson's birth.

1945 - German troops massacre more than 1000 political and military prisoners in Gardelegen Germany. The atrocity is discovered two days later by American forces.

1970 - An oxygen tank aboard Apollo 13 explodes, putting the crew into deadly peril. The explosion occurred on April 14th in several time zones.

1972 - The Universal Postal Union decides to recognize the People's Republic of China as the only legitimate Chinese representative, effectively expelling the Republic of China administering Taiwan.

1974 - Western Union (in cooperation with NASA and Hughes Aircraft) launches the USA's first commercial geosynchronous communications satellite, Westar 1.

1975 - An attack by Palestinians on a church in Ain El Remmeneh, Lebanon marks the beginning of a 15 year civil war.


1983 - Harold Washington is elected as the first African-American mayor in Chicago's history.

1984 - Pete Rose becomes the first player in National League history to collect 4,000 hits.

1985 - Enver Hoxha is succeeded by Ramiz Alia as the leader of Albania.

1987 - Portugal and China sign an agreement in which Macau would be returned to China in 1999.

1997 - Tiger Woods becomes the youngest golfer to win golf's Masters Tournament.

2002 - The Venezuelan coup attempt of 2002 ends. President Hugo Chávez of Venezuela returns

2006 - Tiara Air , a new airline has begin flights to Curacao and Bonaire.


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