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3114 BC - According to the Lounsbury corollation, the Maya calendar starts.

523 - John succeeds Hormisdas as Pope.

1099 - Paschal II elected Pope.

1315 - Louis X of France marries Clemence d'Anjou.

1326 - Aradia de Toscano, according to legend/folklore, is initiated into a Dianic witchcraft cult, subsequently founds the tradition of Stregheria later known as the Malandanti.

1415 - Henry V of England lands at Chef-en-Caux, France with 8000 men.

1516 - Treaty of Noyon between France and Spain signed. In it, Francis recognizes Charles's claim to Naples, and Charles recognizes Francis's claim to Milan.

1521 - Tenochtitlán (present day Mexico City) falls to conquistador Hernán Cortés

1536 - Buddhist monks from Kyoto's Enryaku Temple set fire to 21 Nichiren temples throughout Kyoto in the Tenbun Hokke Disturbance. (Traditional Japanese date: July 27, 1536).

1553 - Michael Servetus arrested by John Calvin in Geneva as a heretic.

1704 - War of the Spanish Succession: Battle of Blenheim - English and Austrians victorious over French and Bavarians.

1814 - The Convention of London, a treaty between the United Kingdom and the United Provinces, is signed in London.

1905 - Norway holds referendum in favour of dissolving the union with Sweden.


1913 - Otto Witte, an acrobat, is crowned King of Albania.

1913 - Invention of stainless steel by Harry Brearley.

1918 - Women enlist in the United States Marine Corps for the first time. Opha Mae Johnson is the first woman to enlist.

1920 - Polish-Soviet War: Battle of Warsaw begins, lasts till August 25. The Red Army is defeated.

1923 - First major sea-going ship arrives at Gdynia, newly constructed Polish seaport.

1937 - Battle of Shanghai begins.

1940 - World War II: Battle of Britain begins - The Luftwaffe launches a series of attacks on British fighter bases and radar installations.

1942 - Walt Disney's fifth animated feature, Bambi, premieres.

1960 - The Central African Republic declares independence from France.

1961 - The German Democratic Republic closes the border between the eastern and western sectors of Berlin, to thwart its inhabitants' attempts to escape to the West.

1968 - Alexandros Panagoulis attempts to assassinate the Greek dictator Colonel G. Papadopoulos in Varkiza, Athens, Greece.

1979 - The roof of the uncompleted Rosemont Horizon near Chicago, Illinois collapses, killing 5 workers and injuring 16.

1987 - U.S. President Ronald Reagan assumes responsibility for his role in the Iran-Contra scandal.


1991 - The SNES (Super Nintendo Entertainment System) debuts in the USA.

1996 - Marc Dutroux, his wife Michelle Martin, and Michel Lelièvre are arrested on suspicion of kidnapping. All are found guilty on June 22, 2004, with sentences of life, 30, and 25 years, respectively.

1997 - South Park debuts on Comedy Central.

2004 - The 28th Summer Olympics opens in Athens, Greece.

2004 - Hurricane Charley, a Category 4 storm, strikes Punta Gorda, Florida and devastates the surrounding area.

2004 - Black Friday crackdown by NSS on a peaceful protest in the capital city of Maldives, Malé.

2004 - 156 Congolese Tutsi refugees massacred at the Gatumba refugee camp in Burundi.

2004 - Adam Curry's first Daily Source Code is created, launching podcasting.


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