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717 - Battle of Vincy between Charles Martel and Ragenfrid.

1413 - Henry V becomes King of England.

1556 - In Oxford, Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer is burned at the stake.

1788 - A fire destroys 856 buildings in New Orleans and leaves most of the town in ruins.

1800 - With the church leadership driven out of Rome during an armed conflict, Pius VII was crowned Pope in Venice with a temporary papal tiara made of papier-mâché.

1801 - The Battle of Alexandria was fought between British and French forces near the ruins of Nicopolis in Egypt.

1804 - Code Napoléon was adopted as French civil law.

1821 - First revolutionary act in Monastery of Agia Lavra, Kalavryta, Greek War of Independence.

1857 - Earthquake in Tokyo, Japan kills over 100,000.

1844 - The Baha'i calendar begins. This is the first day of the first year of the Baha'i calendar. It is annually celebrated by members of the Baha'i Faith as the Baha'i New Year or Naw-Ruz.

1844 - The original date predicted by William Miller for the return of Christ.

1871 - Journalist Henry Morton Stanley began his trek to find the missionary and explorer David Livingstone.

1918 - World War I: Second Battle of the Somme begins.


1919 - The Chinese High School is established in Singapore by Tan Kah Kee.

1928 - Charles Lindbergh is presented the Medal of Honor for his first trans-Atlantic flight.

1933 - Dachau, the first Nazi Germany concentration camp, is completed.

1935 - Shah Reza Pahlavi formally asked the international community to call Persia by its native name, Iran, which means 'Land of the Aryans'.

1940 - Paul Reynaud becomes Prime Minister of France.

1943 - Masacre of the town of Kalavryta, Greece by German Nazi troops.

1945 - World War II: British troops liberate Mandalay, Burma.

1952 - Alan Freed presents the Moondog Coronation Ball, the first rock and roll concert, in Cleveland, Ohio

1960 - Apartheid: Massacre in Sharpeville, South Africa: Police open fire on a group of unarmed black South African demonstrators, killing 69 and wounding 180.

1963 - Alcatraz, a federal penitentiary on an island in San Francisco Bay, closes.

1964 - In Copenhagen, Denmark, Gigliola Cinquetti wins the ninth Eurovision Song Contest for Italy singing "Non ho l'età" (I'm not old enough).

1965 - Ranger program: NASA launches Ranger 9 which is the last in a series of unmanned lunar space probes.

1965 - Martin Luther King Jr leads 3,200 people on the start of the third and finally successful civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama.


1968 - The Israeli Defense Forces attack the village of Karameh in Jordan.

1970 - The first Earth Day proclamation was issued by San Francisco Mayor Joseph Alioto.

1970 - Vinko Bogataj crashes during a ski-jumping championship in Germany; his image becomes that of the "agony of defeat guy" in the opening credits of ABC's Wide World of Sports.

1970 - In Amsterdam, Netherlands, Dana wins the fifteenth Eurovision Song Contest for Ireland singing "All Kinds of Everything".

1980 - President Jimmy Carter announces a United States boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow to protest the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan.

1980 - On the season finale of the soap opera Dallas, the infamous character J.R. Ewing is shot by an unseen assailant, leading to the catchphrase "Who Shot JR?"

1985 - Canadian paraplegic athlete and humanitarian Rick Hansen begins his circumnavigation in a wheelchair in the name of spinal cord injury medical research.

1989 - Sports Illustrated reports allegations that tie baseball player Pete Rose to baseball gambling.

1990 - Namibia becomes independent after 75 years of South African rule.

1999 - Bertrand Piccard and Brian Jones become the first to circumnavigate the Earth in a hot air balloon.

2002 - In Pakistan, Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh along with three other suspects are charged with murder for their part in the kidnapping and killing of Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl.

2004 - In Malaysia, the 11th Federal and State elections are held, returning the ruling coalition Barisan Nasional to power with an increased majority.

2005 - In Red Lake, Minnesota, 10 are killed in a school shooting, the worst since the Columbine High School massacre.


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