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345 - Roman Emperor Valentinian III assassinates Aëtius in his own throne room.

1745 - Battle of Prestonpans: A Hanoverian army under the command of Sir John Cope is defeated, in ten minutes, by the Jacobite forces of Prince Charles Edward Stuart

1765 - Antoine de Beauterne announced he had killed the Beast of Gévaudan.

1780 - American Revolutionary War: Benedict Arnold gives the British the plans to West Point.

1792 - The French National Convention votes to abolish the monarchy.

1827 - Joseph Smith, Jr., claims that the angel Moroni gave him a record of gold plates, one-third of which is "translated" into The Book of Mormon.

1860 - In the Second Opium War, an Anglo-French force defeats Chinese troops at the Battle of Baliqiao.

1896 - British force under Horatio Kitchener takes Dongola in the Sudan.

1897 - The "Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus" letter is published in the New York Sun.

1898 - Empress Dowager Cixi seizes power and ends the Hundred Days' Reform in China.

1921 - Oppau explosion, a storage silo at a fertilizer producing plant exploded in Oppau, Germany, 500?600 killed.

1937 - J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit is published.

1938 - The Great Hurricane of 1938 makes landfall on Long Island in New York. The death toll is estimated at 500-700 people.


1939 - Romanian Prime Minister Armand Calinescu is assassinated by pro-Nazi members of the Iron Guard.

1942 - The B-29 Superfortress makes its debut.

1950 - George Marshall sworn in as the 3rd Secretary of Defense of United States.

1964 - Malta becomes independent from the United Kingdom.

1970 - Monday Night Football premieres.

1972 - Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos issues Proclamation No. 1081 placing the entire country under martial law.

1981 - Belize is granted full independence from the United Kingdom.

1981 - Sandra Day O'Connor, the first female supreme court justice, is confirmed by the senate in a 99-0 vote.

1991 - Armenia is granted independence from Soviet Union.

1993 - Russian President Boris Yeltsin suspends parliament and scraps the then-functioning constitution, thus triggering the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993.

1995 - The Hindu milk miracle occurs, in which statues of the Hindu god Ganesh began drinking milk when spoonfuls were placed near their mouths.

1999 - Chi-Chi earthquake occurs in central Taiwan, leaving about 2,400 people dead.

2001 - Deep Space 1 flies within 2,200 km of Comet Borrelly.


2003 - Galileo mission terminated by sending the probe into Jupiter's atmosphere, where it is crushed by the pressure at the lower altitudes.

2004 - The Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) People's War and the Maoist Communist Centre of India merge to form the Communist Party of India (Maoist).


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