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489 - Odoacer attacks Theodoric at the Battle of Verona, and is defeated again.

1331 - the Battle of Plowce between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Order took place.

1540 - The Society of Jesus (the Jesuits) receives its charter from Pope Paul III.

1590 - Pope Urban VII dies 13 days after being chosen as the Pope, making his reign the shortest papacy in history.

1605 - The armies of Sweden are utterly defeated by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Battle of Kircholm

1787 - The United States Constitution is delivered to the states for ratification.

1821 - Mexico gains its independence from Spain.

1822 - Jean-François Champollion announces that he has deciphered the Rosetta stone.

1825 - The Stockton and Darlington Railway opens, and begins operation of the world's first service of locomotive-hauled passenger trains.

1854 - The steamship Arctic sinks with 300 people on board. This marks the first great disaster in the Atlantic Ocean.

1903 - Wreck of the Old 97, a train crash made famous by the song of the same name.

1905 - Albert Einstein publishes the paper "Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?" in Annalen der Physik. This paper revealed the relationship between energy and mass.

1928 - The Republic of China is recognized by the United States.


1937 - Last Balinese Tiger killed.

1938 - Ocean liner Queen Elizabeth launched in Glasgow.

1940 - The Tripartite Pact is signed in Berlin by Germany, Japan and Italy.

1941 - The SS Patrick Henry is launched becoming the first of more than 2,700 Liberty ships.

1942 - Glenn Miller and his Orchestra perform for the last time before Miller enters the US Army.

1949 - The first Plenary Session of the National People's Congress approves the design of the Flag of the People's Republic of China.

1954 - The nationwide debut of Tonight! (The Tonight Show) hosted by Steve Allen on NBC.

1959 - Nearly 5000 people die on the main Japanese island of Honshu as the result of a typhoon.

1964 - The Warren Commission releases its report, concluding that Lee Harvey Oswald, acting alone, assassinated President John F. Kennedy.

1968 - The stage musical Hair opened at the Shaftesbury Theatre in London, where it played 1,998 performances until its closure was forced by the roof's collapsing in July 1973.

1977 - The 300 metre tall CKVR-TV transmission tower in Barrie, Ontario, Canada is hit by a light aircraft in a fog, causing it to collapse. All aboard the aircraft are killed.

1979 - The United States Department of Education receives final approval from the U.S. Congress to become the 13th US Cabinet agency.

1980 - Marvin Hagler defeats Alan Minter to claim boxing's world Middleweight championship in London. They have to be escorted away by police after a riot forms.


1983 - Richard Stallman announces the GNU project to develop a free Unix-like operating system.

1985 - Hurricane Gloria hits Long Island, New York.

1988 - The National League for Democracy, led by Aung San Suu Kyi is founded.

1995 - The Government of the United States unveils the first of its redesigned bank notes with the $100 bill featuring a larger portrait of Benjamin Franklin slightly off-center.

1996 - In Afghanistan, the Taliban capture the capital city Kabul after driving out President Burhanuddin Rabbani and executing former leader Mohammad Najibullah.

1997 - Communications are lost with the Mars Pathfinder for unknown reasons.

1998 - Google is first established

1999 - The last professional baseball game is played at historic Tiger Stadium in Detroit, Michigan.

2002 - Timor-Leste (East Timor) joins the United Nations.

2003 - Smart 1 is launched.

2004 - Virgin Group announces a joint venture with Mojave Aerospace Ventures to build VSS Enterprise for commercial spaceflight and a new company called Virgin Galactic.


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