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363 - Roman Emperor Julian defeats the Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the Sassanid capital, but is unable to take the city.

757 - Paul I succeeds Stephen II as pope.

1167 - Battle of Legnano, in which The Lombard League defeats Emperor Frederick I.

1414 - Council of Constance.

1453 - Ottoman armies under Sultan Mehmed II Fatih capture Constantinople after a siege, ending the Byzantine Empire and with it the Roman Empire.

1660 - English Restoration: Charles II (on his birthday - see below) is restored to the throne of Great Britain.

1677 - Treaty of Middle Plantation establishes peace between the Virginia colonists and the local Indians.

1727 - Peter II becomes Tsar of Russia.

1733 - Right of Canadians to keep Indian slaves upheld at Quebec City.

1765 - Patrick Henry in a speech denouncing the Stamp Act is said to have said, "If this be treason, make the most of it!"

1790 - Rhode Island becomes the last of the original United States colonies to ratify the Constitution and is admitted as the 13th U.S. state.

1848 - Wisconsin is admitted as the 30th U.S. state.

1864 - Emperor Maximilian of Mexico arrives in Mexico for the first time.


1867 - Austro-Hungarian agreement called Ausgleich ("the Compromise") is born through Act 12, which established the Austro-Hungarian Empire; on June 8 Emperor Francis Joseph was crowned King of Hungary.

1868 - The assassination of Michael Obrenovich III, Prince of Serbia, in Belgrade.

1886 - Chemist John Pemberton places his first advertisement for Coca-Cola, the ad appearing in the Atlanta Journal.

1886 - Putney Bridge opens in west London.

1903 - May coup d'etat: Alexander Obrenovich, King of Serbia, and Queen Draga, are assassinated in Belgrade by the Black Hand (Crna Ruka) organization.

1913 - Igor Stravinsky's ballet score The Rite of Spring is premiered in Paris.

1914 - Ocean liner RMS Empress of Ireland sinks in the Gulf of St. Lawrence; 1,024 lives lost.

1919 - Arthur Eddington takes measurements of shifted star positions during a solar eclipse in an attempt to test Einstein's theory of relativity.

1932 - WW I Veterans begin to assemble in Washington, DC in the Bonus Army to request cash bonuses promised to them to be paid in 1945.

1935 - Construction of Hoover Dam is completed.

1950 - St. Roch, first ship to circumnavigate North America, arrives in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

1953 - Sir Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay are the first people to reach the summit of Mount Everest.

1968 - Manchester United wins the European Cup, the first English Club to do so.


1985 - Heysel Stadium disaster: In Brussels, Belgium, 39 football fans die and hundreds are injured during a riot at a European Cup match.

1985 - Amputee Steve Fonyo completes cross-Canada marathon at Victoria, British Columbia, after 14 months.

1990 - Boris Yeltsin elected President of Russia.

1994 - Herbert Shughart refuses to shake hands with U.S. President Bill Clinton following a presentation of posthumous Medals of Honor to the widows of two soldiers for valor at the Battle of Mogadishu.

1999 - Olusegun Obasanjo takes office as President of Nigeria, the first elected and civilian head of state in Nigeria after 16 years of military rule.

2004 - The World War II Memorial is dedicated in Washington, D.C.

2004 - The Al-Khobar massacres in Saudi Arabia kill 22.

2005 - France, one of the founders of a united Europe, resoundingly rejects the European Constitution, throwing the idea of a European Union into question and leaving the continent in a state of anxiety and uncertainty (see French referendum on the European Constitution).

2006 - Charles Gibson takes over as anchor of ABC World News Tonight.


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