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1493 - Christopher Columbus first sights the island of Dominica in the Caribbean Sea.

1783 - John Austin, a highwayman, is the last to be publicly hanged at London's Tyburn gallows.

1783 - The Continental Army is disbanded.

1793 - French playwright, journalist and feminist Olympe de Gouges is guillotined.

1817 - The Bank of Montreal, Canada's oldest chartered bank, opens in Montreal, Quebec.

1838 - The Times of India, the world's largest circulated English language daily broadsheet newspaper is founded as The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce.

1844 - Debut of Giuseppe Verdi's I due Foscari, at Teatro Argentina, Rome.

1848 - A greatly revised constitution, drafted by Johan Rudolf Thorbecke, severely limiting the powers of the Dutch monarchy, and strengthening the powers of the parliament and the ministers, is proclaimed. This constitution is still in effect today.

1868 - U.S. presidential election: Republican Ulysses S. Grant is elected to the first of his two terms in a victory over Democrat Horatio Seymour.

1883 - American Old West: Self-described "Black Bart the Po-8" gets away with his last stagecoach robbery, but leaves an incriminating clue that eventually leads to his capture.

1896 - U.S. presidential election: Republican William McKinley is elected over Democrat William Jennings Bryan.

1903 - With the encouragement of the United States, Panama proclaims itself independent from Colombia. US President Theodore Roosevelt had wanted the United States to build the Panama Canal, but was not willing to pay what Colombia asked.

1908 - U.S. presidential election: Republican William Howard Taft defeats William Jennings Bryan, Democratic candidate in his third and final nomination.


1911 - Chevrolet officially enters the automobile market in competition with the Ford Model T.

1913 - The USA introduces an income tax.

1918 - Austria-Hungary enters an armistice with the World War I Allies, and the Habsburg-ruled empire dissolves.

1918 - Poland declares its independence from Russia.

1930 - Getúlio Dornelles Vargas became Head of the Provisional Government in Brazil after a bloodless coup on October 24.

1935 - George II of Greece regains his throne.

1936 - U.S. presidential election, 1936: Franklin D. Roosevelt is reelected to a second term in a landslide victory over Alf Landon.

1942 - World War II: Second Battle of El Alamein ends - German forces under Erwin Rommel are forced to retreat during the night.

1944 - World War II: Two supreme commanders of the Slovak National Uprising, Generals Ján Golian and Rudolf Viest are captured, tortured and later executed by German forces.

1954 - The first in the Godzilla series of films is released in Japan.

1957 - Sputnik program: The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 2. On board is the first animal to enter orbit: a dog named Laika.

1964 - U.S. presidential election, 1964: Incumbent US President Lyndon B. Johnson defeats Republican challenger Barry Goldwater, Sr with over 60 percent of the popular vote.

1967 - Vietnam War: Battle of Dak To begins.


1969 - Vietnam War: U.S. President Richard M. Nixon addresses the nation on television and radio, asking the "silent majority" to join him in solidarity on the Vietnam War effort and to support his policies.

1970 - Salvador Allende is inaugurated as president of Chile.

1973 - Mariner program: NASA launches the Mariner 10 toward Mercury, on March 29, 1974 becoming the first space probe to reach that planet.

1975 - An independent audit of Mattel, one of the United States's largest toy manufacturers, reveals that company officials fabricated press releases and financial information to "maintain the appearance of continued corporate growth."

1978 - Dominica gains its independence from the United Kingdom.

1979 - Greensboro massacre: Five members of the Communist Workers Party are shot dead and seven are wounded by a group of Klansmen and neo-Nazis during a "Death to the Klan" rally.

1982 - The Salang tunnel fire in Afghanistan kills up to 2,000+ people.

1984 -Indira Gandhi was cremated at Shakti Sthal.

1986 - Iran-Contra Affair: The Lebanese magazine Ash-Shiraa reports that the United States has been selling weapons to Iran in secret in order to secure the release of seven American hostages held by pro-Iranian groups in Lebanon.

1988 - Sri Lankan Tamil mercenaries try to overthrow the Maldivian government. At President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom's request, the Indian military suppresses the coup attempt within 24 hours.

1991 - Fifteen people are killed in the Barrios Altos massacre in Lima, Peru.

1992 - U.S. presidential election: Democratic challenger Bill Clinton defeats incumbent Republican George H.W. Bush and independent candidate Ross Perot.

1998 - Former professional wrestler Jesse Ventura is elected Governor of the U.S. state of Minnesota.


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