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350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, proclaims himself Roman Emperor, entering Rome at the head of a group of gladiators.

1098 - First Crusade: Antioch falls to the crusaders after an eight-month siege.

1140 - French scholar Peter Abelard is found guilty of heresy.

1326 - Treaty of Novgorod delineates borders between Russia and Norway in Finnmark.

1608 - Samuel de Champlain completes his third voyage to New France at Tadoussac, Quebec.

1620 - Construction of the oldest stone church in French North America, Notre-Dame-des-Anges, begins at Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

1621 - The Dutch West India Company receives a charter for New Netherlands.

1658 - The Pope appoints François de Laval vicar apostolic in New France.

1665 - James Stuart, Duke of York (later to become King James II of England) defeats the Dutch Fleet off the coast of Lowestoft.

1770 - Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo is founded in Carmel-by-the-Sea, California.

1800 - U.S. President John Adams takes up residence in Washington, DC (in a tavern ? the White House was not yet completed).

1850 - The traditional founding date of Kansas City, Missouri. This was the date on which it was first incorporated by Jackson County, Missouri as the "City of Kansas".

1864 - American Civil War: Battle of Cold Harbor - Union forces attack Confederate troops at Cold Harbor, Virginia.


1866 - Fenians are driven out of Fort Erie, Ontario, into the United States to a heroes' welcome.

1885 - Last military engagement fought on Canadian soil: Cree leader Big Bear escapes the North West Mounted Police.

1888 - The poem "Casey at the Bat", by Ernest Lawrence Thayer, is published in the San Francisco Examiner.

1889 - The Canadian Pacific Railway is completed from coast to coast.

1889 - The first long-distance electric power transmission line in the United States is completed, running 14 miles between a generator at Willamette Falls and downtown Portland, Oregon, United States.

1907 - Centro Escolar University was established by Librada Avelino and Carmen de Luna in Manila, Philippines.

1916 - The ROTC is established by the U.S. Congress.

1916 - The National Defense Act is signed into law, increasing the size of the United States National Guard by 450,000 men.

1935 - One thousand unemployed Canadian workers board freight cars in Vancouver, British Columbia, beginning a protest trek to Ottawa, Ontario.

1937 - The Duke of Windsor marries Wallis Simpson.

1940 - World War II: The Luftwaffe bombs Paris.

1940 - World War II: The Battle of Dunkirk ends with a German victory and with Allied forces in full retreat.

1943 - A mob of 60 from the Los Angeles Naval Reserve Armory beats up everyone perceived to be Hispanic, starting a week-long race riot (see Zoot Suit Riots).


1956 - British Rail renamed 'Third Class' passenger facilities as 'Second Class' (Second Class facilities had been abolished in 1875, leaving just First Class and Third Class).

1960 - In Gideon v. Wainwright, the United States Supreme Court rules that all accused persons in criminal cases must be given the right to an attorney.

1962 - An Air France Boeing 707 jet crashed shortly after takeoff from Paris, killing 130.

1963 - A Northwest Airlines DC-7 crashes in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of British Columbia, killing 101.

1965 - Launch of Gemini 4, the first multi-day space mission by an NASA crew.

1965 - For 21 minutes, Edward H. White floats free outside the space vehicle Gemini IV for the first time.

1968 - Valerie Solanas, author of The SCUM Manifesto, attempts to assassinate Andy Warhol by shooting him three times.

1969 - The science fiction television series Star Trek airs its final new episode after being canceled by NBC after a three-season run.

1969 - Off the coast of South Vietnam, the Australian aircraft carrier HMAS Melbourne cuts the U.S. Navy destroyer USS Frank E. Evans in half.

1973 - A Soviet supersonic Tupolev Tu-144 crashes near Goussainville, France, killing 14, the first crash of a supersonic passenger aircraft.

1977 - Reggae stars Bob Marley and the Wailers release the classic album Exodus, which would be named Time magazine's "Album of the Century" in 1999.

1979 - A blowout at the Ixtoc I oil well in the southern Gulf of Mexico causes at least 600,000 tons (176,400,000 gallons) of oil to be spilled into the waters, the worst oil spill to date. Some estimate the spill to be 428 million gallons, making it the largest unintentional oil spill ever.

1982 - The Israeli ambassador to Britain, Shlomo Argov, is shot on a London street. He survives but is permanently paralysed.

1989 - The government of China sends troops to force protesters out of Tiananmen Square after seven weeks of occupation.

1991 - Mount Unzen erupts in Japan in Kyushu killing 43 people, all of them either researchers or journalists.

1992 - The Mabo Decision is handed down, changing Australian Aboriginal land rights forever.

1997 - Lionel Jospin becomes Prime Minister of France.

1998 - Eschede train disaster: an ICE high speed train derails in Lower Saxony, Germany, causing 101 deaths.

2002 - The peak day of Golden Jubilee celebrations occurs in the United Kingdom.

2006 - The union of Serbia and Montenegro came to an end with Montenegro's formal declaration of independence.


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