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36 BC - In the battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius, son of Pompey, thus ending Pompeian resistance to the Second Triumvirate.

301 - San Marino, one of the smallest nations in the world and the world's oldest republic still in existence, is founded by Saint Marinus.

590 - St. Gregory I becomes Pope.

1189 - Richard I of England (a.k.a. Richard "the Lionhearted") is crowned at Westminster.

1260 - The Mamluks defeat the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in Palestine, marking their first decisive defeat and the point of maximum expansion of the Mongol Empire.

1540 - Gelawdewos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia.

1650 - Third English Civil War: Battle of Dunbar (1650)

1651 - Third English Civil War: Battle of Worcester - Charles II of England is defeated in the last main battle of the war.

1777 - Cooch's Bridge - Skirmish of American Revolutionary war in New Castle County, Delaware where the Flag of the United States was flown in battle for the first time.

1783 - American Revolutionary War: The war ends with the signing of the Treaty of Paris by the United States and the Kingdom of Great Britain.

1798 - Weeklong battle of St. George's Caye begun between Spanish and British off the coast of Belize.

1826 - The USS Vincennes commanded by William Finch, leaves New York City to become first United States warship to circumnavigate globe.

1838 - Dressed in a sailor's uniform and carrying identification papers provided by a Free Black seaman, future abolitionist Frederick Douglass boards a train in Maryland on his way to freedom from slavery.


1855 - Indian Wars: In Nebraska, 700 soldiers under American General William S. Harney avenge the Grattan Massacre by attacking a Sioux village, killing 100 men, women, and children.

1861 - American Civil War: Confederate General Leonidas Polk invades neutral Kentucky, prompting the state legislature to ask for Union assistance.

1874 - The congress of the state of México elevates Naucalpan to the category of Villa, with the title of "Villa de Juárez".

1878 - Over 640 die when the crowded pleasure boat Princess Alice collides with the Bywell Castle in the River Thames.

1892 - Nottingham Forest play their first ever football league game. It ended 2-2 against Everton FC.

1895 - The first professional American football game is played, in Latrobe, Pennsylvania, between the Latrobe YMCA and the Jeannette Athletic Club. (Latrobe won the contest 12-0).

1914 - Giacomo della Chiesa acceeds to the papacy as Pope Benedict XV.

1933 - Yevgeniy Abalakov reaches the highest point of the Soviet Union - Communism Peak (7495 m).

1935 - Sir Malcolm Campbell reaches 304.331 miles per hour on the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah, becoming the first person to drive an automobile over 300 mph

1939 - World War II: France, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and Australia declare war on Germany.

1941 - John Gillespie Magee, Jr. authors the sonnet "High Flight".

1942 - World War II: Uprising of the Jewish ghetto in Lakhva occurs.

1943 - World War II: Mainland Italy is invaded by Allied forces for the first time in the war.


1951 - The first long-running American television soap opera, Search for Tomorrow, airs its first episode on the CBS network.

1954 - The People's Liberation Army begin shelling the ROC-controlled islands of Quemoy

1958 - In Greece, police start shaving the hair of youths called "Teddy Boys" to the skin.

1967 - Nguyen Van Thieu is elected President of South Vietnam.

1967 - Dagen H in Sweden: traffic changes from driving on the left to driving on the right overnight

1969 - the hit song "I've Got You Under My Skin" by The Four Seasons was released to radio

1976 - Viking program: The Viking 2 spacecraft lands at Utopia Planitia on Mars and takes the first close-up, color photos of the planet's surface.

1991 - In Hamlet, North Carolina, a grease fire breaks out at the Imperial Foods chicken processing plant, killing 25 people.

1994 - Sino-Soviet Split: Russia and the People's Republic of China agree to de-target their nuclear weapons against each other.

1997 - Arizona Governor Fife Symington is convicted for various crimes tied to his real estate business, effectively forcing him out of office.

1997 - A Vietnam Airlines Tupolev TU-134 crashes on approach into Phnom Penh airport, killing 64.

2004 - The Beslan school massacre ends in the deaths of approximately 344 teachers and children.


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