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313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule.

711 - Islamic conquest of Iberia: Moorish troops led by Tariq ibn-Ziyad land at Gibraltar to begin their invasion of the Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus).

1006 - Supernova SN 1006, the brightest supernova in recorded history, appears in the constellation Lupus.

1483 - Orbital calculations suggest that on this day Pluto moved inside Neptune's orbit, making Neptune the furthest planet from the Sun until July 23, 1503.

1492 - Spain gives Christopher Columbus his commission of exploration.

1671 - Petar Zrinski, the Croatian Ban from the Zrinski family, is executed.

1794 - The Battle of Boulou is fought, in which French forces defeated the Spanish under General Union.

1789 - On the balcony of Federal Hall on Wall Street in New York City, George Washington takes the oath of office to become the first elected President of the United States.

1803 - Louisiana Purchase: The United States purchases the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million, more than doubling ? overnight ? the size of the young nation.

1812 - The Territory of Orleans becomes the 18th U.S. state under the name Louisiana.

1838 - Nicaragua declares independence from the Central American Federation

1863 - Mexican forces attacked the French Foreign Legion in Hacienda Camarón, Mexico.

1871 - Camp Grant Massacre takes place in Arizona Territory.


1894 - Coxey's Army reaches Washington, D.C. to protest the unemployment caused by the Panic of 1893.

1900 - Hawaii becomes a territory of the United States, with Sanford B. Dole as governor.

1900 - Casey Jones dies in a train wreck in Vaughn, Mississippi, while trying to make up time on the Cannonball Express.

1904 - The Louisiana Purchase Exposition World's Fair opens in St. Louis, Missouri.

1920 - Peru becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.

1925 - Automaker Dodge Brothers, Inc is sold to Dillon, Read & Company for USD $146 million plus $50 million for charity.

1927 - The Federal Industrial Institute for Women, opens in Alderson, West Virginia, as the first women's federal prison in the United States.

1938 - The animated cartoon short Porky's Hare Hunt debuts in movie theaters, introducing Bugs Bunny.

1939 - Franklin D. Roosevelt becomes the first President of the United States to appear on television.

1939 - The 1939 New York World's Fair opens.

1943 - World War II: Operation Mincemeat ? The submarine HMS Seraph surfaces in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Spain to deposit a dead man planted with false invasion plans and dressed as a British military intelligence officer.

1945 - Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun commit suicide after being married for one day.

1947 - In Nevada, the Boulder Dam is officially renamed Hoover Dam again.


1948 - In Bogotá, Colombia, the Organization of American States is established.

1973 - Watergate Scandal: President Richard Nixon announces that top White House aids H.R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman, and others have resigned.

1975 - Fall of Saigon: Communist forces gains control of Saigon. The Vietnam War formally ends with the unconditional surrender of South Vietnamese president Duong Van Minh.

1980 - Accession of Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands.

1991 - A tropical cyclone hits Bangladesh killing an estimated 138,000 people.

1993 - The World Wide Web was born at CERN.

1993 - During a tennis match between #1 female tennis player Monica Sele? and Magdalena Maleeva, Günter Parche plunged a steak knife between Sele?'s shoulderblades. Sele? did not return to competitive tennis for over two years.

1995 - U.S. President Bill Clinton became the first U.S. President to visit Northern Ireland.

1997 - Ellen DeGeneres's character comes out of the closet on the sitcom Ellen.

1999 - Cambodia joins the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) bringing the total members to 10.

2002 - A referendum in Pakistan overwhelmingly approves the Presidency of Pervez Musharraf for another five years.

2006 - The mining incident in Beaconsfield, Tasmania, comes to a close. 14 days after being trapped 1km below the surface by a rock fall caused by an earthquake, miners Todd Russell and Brant Webb are brought to safety.


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