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1574 - Guru Ram Das became the Fourth Sikh Guru/Master

1590 - Tokugawa Ieyasu enters Edo Castle. (Traditional Japanese date: August 1, 1590)

1799 - Capture of the entire Dutch fleet by British forces under the command of Sir Ralph Abercromby and Admiral Sir Charles Mitchell during the Second Coalition of the French Revolutionary Wars.

1800 - Gabriel Prosser leads a slave rebellion in Richmond, Virginia

1813 - Battle of Kulm: French forces defeated by Austrian-Prussian-Russian alliance

1813 - Creek War: Creek Red Sticks carried out the Fort Mims Massacre.

1850 - Honolulu, Hawaii, becomes a city

1862 - American Civil War: Battle of Richmond, Kentucky: Confederates under Edmund Kirby Smith rout a Union army under General Horatio Wright

1862 - American Civil War: Union forces are defeated in Second Battle of Bull Run

1873 - Austrian explorers Julius von Payer and Karl Weyprecht discover the archipelago of Franz Joseph Land in the Arctic Sea.

1909 - Burgess Shale fossils discovered by Charles Doolittle Walcott

1914 - Battle of Tannenberg

1918 - Fanya Kaplan, an assassin, shoots and seriously injures Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin. This, along with the assassination of Bolshevik senior official Moisei Uritsky days earlier, prompts the decree for Red Terror.


1922 - Battle of Dumlupinar, final battle in Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922) ("Turkish War of Independence")

1941 - Siege of Leningrad begins.

1942 - World War II: Battle of Alam Halfa begins.

1945 - Hong Kong is liberated from Japan by British Forces.

1945 - Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces, General Douglas MacArthur lands at Atsugi Air Force Base.

1962 - Japan conducts a test of the NAMC YS-11, its first aircraft since the war and its only successful commercial aircraft from before or after the war.

1963 - Hotline between U.S. and Soviet leaders goes into operation.

1965 - Rock musician Bob Dylan releases his influential album Highway 61 Revisited featuring the song "Like a Rolling Stone."

1967 - Thurgood Marshall is confirmed as the first African American Justice of the United States Supreme Court.

1974 - A Belgrade-Dortmund express train derails at the main train station in Zagreb killing 153 passengers.

1984 - STS-41-D: The Space Shuttle Discovery takes off on its maiden voyage.

1990 - Tatarstan declares independence from the RSFSR.

1991 - Azerbaijan declares independence from the USSR.


1993 - The first episode of the Late Show with David Letterman airs on CBS, following Letterman's move from NBC.

1999 - East Timorese vote for independence in a referendum.

2005 - The 17th Street Canal in New Orleans is breached during Hurricane Katrina, leading to massive flooding and destruction.


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