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610 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor.

1209 - Otto IV crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Innocent III.

1537 - The first complete English-language Bible (the Matthew Bible) is printed, with translations by William Tyndale and Miles Coverdale.

1582 - Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain October 4 of this year is followed directly by October 15.

1777 - Battle of Germantown: Troops under George Washington are repelled by British troops under Sir William Howe

1795 - Napoleon Bonaparte first rises to national prominence with a "Whiff of Grapeshot", using cannon to suppress armed counter-revolutionary rioters threatening the French Legislature (National Convention).

1824 - Mexico adopts a new constitution and becomes a federal republic.

1830 - Creation of the state of Belgium after separation from The Netherlands

1853 - Crimean War: The Ottoman Empire declares war on Russia.

1883 - First run of the Orient Express.

1883 - First meeting of the Boys' Brigade in Glasgow, Scotland.

1895 - The first U.S. Open Men's Golf Championship run by the United States Golf Association was played on a nine-hole course in Newport, Rhode Island.

1927 - Gutzon Borglum begins sculpting Mt. Rushmore.


1931 - Debut appearance of the Dick Tracy comic strip, created by cartoonist Chester Gould.

1957 - Launch of Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth, and first Avro Arrow rolled out of main plant.

1957 - CBS television show Leave it to Beaver debuts starring Jerry Mathers as Beaver Cleaver and Hugh Beaumont as Ward Cleaver.

1958 - Fifth Republic of France established.

1960 - An Eastern Air Lines Lockheed L-188 Electra flying from Boston crashes, killing 62 people after a bird strike.

1966 - Basutoland becomes independent from the United Kingdom and is renamed Lesotho.

1975 - A Cessna 310Q airplane crashes over Wilmington, North Carolina, killing the pilot and severely injuring several pro wrestlers affiliated with the NWA's Mid-Atlantic promotion. One of the survivors is the legendary Ric Flair

1983 - Hooters restaurant first opened in Clearwater, Florida, United States.

1983 - Richard Noble sets a new land speed record of 633.468 mph, driving Thrust 2 at the Black Rock Desert, Nevada, United States.

1988 - U.S. televangelist Jim Bakker indicted for fraud.

1991 - The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was opened for signature.

1992 - An El Al Boeing 747-200F crashes into two apartment buildings in Amsterdam, killing 43 including 38 on the ground. See Bijlmerramp

1993 - Doom press-release version is made available to journalists for review.


1993 - Russian constitutional crisis of 1993: Russian President Boris Yeltsin orders tanks to storm the Russian parliament building.

1998 - Leafie Mason of Hughes Springs, Texas, is murdered by Ángel Maturino Reséndiz. She is the serial killer's second victim.

1999 - The Welcome to Fabulous Las Vegas sign goes dark as its new owner doesn't pay the power bill.

2001 - A Sibir Airlines Tupolev TU-154 crashes into the Black Sea after being struck by an errant Ukrainian S-200 missile. 78 people are killed.

2003 - Maxim restaurant suicide bombing in Haifa, Israel: 21 Israelis, Jews and Arabs, were killed, and 51 others were wounded.

2004 - SpaceShipOne wins Ansari X Prize for private spaceflight.


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