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1576 - Eighty Years' War: In Belgium, Spain captures Antwerp (after three days the city was nearly destroyed).

1677 - The future Mary II of England marries William, Prince of Orange. They would later be known as William and Mary.

1842 - Abraham Lincoln, future US President, marries Mary Todd in Springfield, Illinois.

1852 - Count Camillo Benso di Cavour became the prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia, which soon expanded to become Italy.

1861 - The University of Washington opens in Seattle, Washington as the Territorial University

1864 - American Civil War: Battle of Johnsonville - Confederate troops bombard a Union supply base and destroy millions of dollars in material.

1869 - The first issue of the scientific journal Nature is published.

1884 - U.S. presidential election, 1884: Democrat Grover Cleveland defeats Republican James G. Blaine in a very close contest to win the first of his two non-consecutive terms.

1889 - Menelek of Shoa obtains the allegiance of a large majority of the Ethiopian nobility, paving the way for him to be crowned emperor.

1890 - City & South London Railway: London's first deep-level tube railway opens between King William Street and Stockwell.

1899 - Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams is published.

1918 - World War I: Austria-Hungary surrenders to Italy.

1918 - The German Revolution begins when 40,000 sailors take over the port in Kiel.


1921 - The Sturmabteilung or SA is formally formed by Adolf Hitler

1921 - Japanese Prime Minister Hara Takashi assassinated in Tokyo.

1922 - In Egypt, British archaeologist Howard Carter and his men find the entrance to King Tutankhamen's tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

1924 - Nellie Tayloe Ross of Wyoming elected as the first woman governor in the United States.

1928 - Arnold Rothstein, New York City's most notorious gambler, is shot dead over a poker game.

1939 - World War II: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders the United States Customs Service to implement the Neutrality Act of 1939, allowing cash-and-carry purchases of weapons by belligerents.

1942 - World War II: Second Battle of El Alamein - Disobeying a direct order by Adolf Hitler, General Field Marshal Erwin Rommel leads his forces on a five-month retreat.

1948 - T.S. Eliot wins the Nobel Prize in Literature.

1952 - U.S. presidential election, 1952: Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower defeats Democrat Adlai Stevenson.

1955 - The rebuilt Vienna State Opera reopens with Ludwig van Beethoven's Fidelio after it was totally destroyed in World War II.

1956 - Soviet troops enter Hungary to end the Hungarian revolution that started on October 23. Thousands are killed, more are wounded, and nearly a quarter million leave the country.

1960 - Filming wraps on The Misfits, starring Marilyn Monroe and Clark Gable -- the last film for both.

1966 - Two-thirds of Florence, Italy is submerged as the Arno and Po rivers flood; 113 people die, 30,000 are rendered homeless, and countless Renaissance artworks and books are destroyed.


1970 - Vietnam War: Vietnamization - The United States turns control of the Binh Thuy Air Base in the Mekong Delta over to South Vietnam.

1970 - Genie, a 13 year old feral child was found in Los Angeles having been locked in her bedroom for most of her life.

1979 - Iran hostage crisis begins: Iranian radicals, mostly students, invade the United States embassy in Tehran and take 90 hostages (63 of whom are American).

1980 - U.S. presidential election, 1980: Republican challenger Ronald Reagan defeats incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter by a wide margin.

1986 - Chief Justice Rose Bird and two colleagues are removed by the electorate from the Supreme Court of California for their opposition to capital punishment.

1989 - The congress of the Solidarity Party is inaugurated in Sweden. The congress decides, contrary to the proposal of the central committee, not to disband the party.

1993 - Jean Chrétien takes office as Prime Minister of Canada.

1993 - Bolivia becomes a member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty.

1993 - A series of fires destroy 1000 homes in southern California, causing between 500 million and 1 billion USD of damage. Half of the fires turn out to be arson.

1993 - A China Airlines Boeing 747 overran Runway 13 at Hong Kong's Kai Tak International Airport while landing during a typhoon, injuring 22 people.

1994 - San Francisco: First conference that focused exlusively on the subject of the commercial potential of the World Wide Web.

1995 - Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin assassinated by an extreme right-wing Israeli.

2001 - Hurricane Michelle hits Cuba, destroying crops and thousands of homes.

2001 - The Police Service of Northern Ireland is established.

2003 - The largest-ever solar flare is recorded.

2003 - Former HealthSouth CEO Richard Scrushy becomes the first person indicted under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. He was eventually acquitted.


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