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355 - Roman Emperor Constantius II raises his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar, entrusting him of the government of the Prefecture of the Gauls.

1528 - Shipwrecked Spanish conquistador Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca becomes the first known European to set foot on Texas.

1789 - Pope Pius VI appoints Father John Carroll (priest) as the first Catholic bishop in the United States.

1844 - The first constitution of the Dominican Republic was adopted.

1860 - U.S. presidential election, 1860: Abraham Lincoln is elected as the 16th President of the United States, the first Republican to hold that office.

1861 - American Civil War: Jefferson Davis is elected president of the Confederate States of America.

1869 - In New Brunswick, New Jersey, Rutgers University defeats Princeton University, 6-4, in the first official intercollegiate American football game .

1873 - The Halifax Rugby League Football Club is formed.

1888 - U.S. presidential election, 1888: Democrat incumbent Grover Cleveland wins the overall popular vote, but is voted out of office because he loses in the Electoral College to Republican challenger Benjamin Harrison.

1889 - Nintendo Koppai (Later Nintendo Company, Limited) founded by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce and market the playing card game Hanafuda.

1900 - U.S. presidential election, 1900: Republican incumbent William McKinley is re-elected by defeating Democrat challenger William Jennings Bryan.

1913 - Mohandas Gandhi is arrested while leading a march of Indian miners in South Africa.

1917 - World War I: Third Battle of Ypres ends: After three months of fierce fighting, Canadian forces take Passchendaele in Belgium.


1918 - The Second Polish Republic is proclaimed in Poland.

1928 - Swedes start a tradition of eating Gustavus Adolphus pastries to commemorate the king.

1928 - U.S. presidential election, 1928: Republican Herbert Hoover wins by a wide margin over Democrat Alfred E. Smith.

1935 - Before the New York section of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Edwin Armstrong presents his paper "A Method of Reducing Disturbances in Radio Signaling by a System of Frequency Modulation" (see: FM radio).

1939 - World War II: Sonderaktion Krakau

1939 - The Hedda Hopper Show debuts with Hollywood gossip Hedda Hopper as host. The show would run until 1951, making Hopper a powerful figure in the Hollywood elite.

1941 - World War II: Soviet leader Joseph Stalin addresses the Soviet Union for only the second time during his three-decade rule. He states that even though 350,000 troops were killed in German attacks so far, that the Germans have lost 4.5 million soldiers (a wild exaggeration) and that Soviet victory was near.

1947 - Meet The Press makes its television debut (the show went to a weekly schedule on September 12, 1948).

1956 - U.S. presidential election, 1956: Republican incumbent Dwight D. Eisenhower is re-elected by defeating Democrat challenger Adlai E. Stevenson in a rematch of their contest four years earlier.

1957 - Félix Gaillard becomes Prime Minister of France

1962 - Apartheid: The United Nations General Assembly passes a resolution condemning South Africa's racist apartheid policies and calls for all UN member states to cease military and economic relations with the nation.

1963 - Vietnam War: Following the November 1 coup and execution of President Ngo Dinh Diem, coup leader General Duong Van Minh takes over leadership of South Vietnam.

1965 - Freedom Flights begin: Cuba and the United States formally agree to start an airlift for Cubans who want to go to the United States. By 1971, 250,000 Cubans will take advantage of this program.


1971 - The AEC tests the largest U.S. underground hydrogen bomb, code-named Cannikin, on Amchitka Island in the Aleutians.

1975 - Green March begins: 300,000 unarmed Moroccans converge on the southern city of Tarfaya and wait for a signal from King Hassan II of Morocco to cross into Western Sahara.

1975 - The Sex Pistols play their first concert at St. Martin's School of Art in London.

1977 - The Kelly Barnes Dam, located above Toccoa Falls Bible College near Toccoa, Georgia, fails, killing 39.

1984 - Ronald Reagan defeats Walter Mondale to be re-elected in one of the largest electoral landslides in United States election history.

1985 - In Colombia, leftist guerrillas of the April 19 Movement seize control of the Palace of Justice in Bogotá, eventually killing 115 people, 11 of them Supreme Court justices.

1985 - "Irangate" scandal: The American press reveals that US President Ronald Reagan had authorized the shipment of arms to Iran.

1986 - Alex Ferguson is appointed manager of Manchester United F.C.

1988 - Beatle Ringo Starr checks into an alcohol rehabilitation centre.

1989 - Kitty Dukakis, wife of presidential candidate and Massachusetts governor Michael Dukakis, is hospitalised for drinking rubbing alcohol.

1996 - The family of Eduardo Quihua Maquixtle from Vicente Guerrero, Mexico, including his four children, are stabbed by three men accusing them of witchcraft.

1998 - Hugo Chávez is elected president of Venezuela

1999 - Australians vote to keep the British monarch as their head of state in the Australian republic referendum..

2001 - Belgian national airline Sabena is declared bankrupt.

2001 - Michael Bloomberg is elected mayor of New York City.

2001 - David Trimble is re-elected prime minister of Northern Ireland

2002 - 12 people are killed in a fire on board a train headed for Vienna from Paris

2002 - Winona Ryder is found guilty of shoplifting after stealing items worth $5,500 from a New York boutique.

2004 - An express train collides with a stationary car near the village of Ufton Nervet, England, killing 6 and injuring 150.

2004 - Official Guided by Voices Day in Dallas, Texas.

2005 - Manchester United beats Chelsea F.C. at a football game at Old Trafford, Manchester to end the defending champion's 40-match unbeaten run in the FA Premier League.

2005 - The Evansville Tornado of November 2005 kills 22 in Indiana and Kentucky.

2005 - The military junta of Myanmar begins moving its government ministries from Yangon to Pyinmana.


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