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1527 - Spanish and German troops sack Rome; some consider this the end of the Renaissance. 147 Swiss Guards, including their commander, died fighting the forces of Charles V during the Sack of Rome in order to allow Pope Clement VII to escape.

1536 - King Henry VIII orders translated Bibles be placed in every church.

1682 - Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles.

1757 - Battle of Prague - A Prussian army fought an Austrian army in Prague during the Seven Years' War.

1816 - The American Bible Society is founded in New York City.

1835 - James Gordon Bennett, Sr. publishes the first issue of the New York Herald.

1840 - The Penny Black postage stamp is valid for use in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

1857 - The British East India Company disbands the 34th Regiment of Bengal Native Infantry whose Sepoy Mangal Pandey had earlier revolted against the British and is considered to be the First Martyr in the War of India's Independence.

1861 - American Civil War: Arkansas secedes from the Union.

1863 - American Civil War: The Battle of Chancellorsville ends, with a defeat of the Army of the Potomac under General Joseph Hooker by Confederate troops under Stonewall Jackson.

1877 - Realizing that his people were weakened by cold and hunger, Chief Crazy Horse of the Oglala Sioux surrenders to United States troops in Nebraska.

1882 - The Congress of the U.S.A. pass the Chinese Exclusion Act.

1889 - The Eiffel Tower is officially opened to the public at the Universal Exposition in Paris.


1910 - George V becomes King of the United Kingdom upon the death of his father, Edward VII.

1935 - New Deal: Executive Order 7034 creates the Works Progress Administration (WPA).

1937 - Hindenburg disaster: The German zeppelin Hindenburg catches fire and is destroyed within a minute while attempting to dock at Lakehurst, New Jersey. Thirty-six people are killed.

1940 - John Steinbeck is awarded the Pulitzer Prize for his novel The Grapes of Wrath.

1941 - At California's March Field Bob Hope performs his first USO show.

1942 - World War II: On Corregidor, the last American forces in the Philippines surrender to the Japanese.

1945 - World War II: Axis Sally delivers her last propaganda broadcast to Allied troops (first was on December 11, 1941).

1945 - World War II: The Prague Offensive, the last major battle of the Eastern Front, begins.

1954 - Roger Bannister becomes the first person to run the mile in under four minutes.

1966 - Myra Hindley and Ian Brady are sentenced to life imprisonment for the Moors Murders in England.

1976 - An earthquake strikes Friuli, causing 989 deaths and the destruction of entire villages

1981 - A jury of architects and sculptors unanimously selects Maya Ying Lin's design for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial from 1,421 other entries.

1988 - An airplane going from Namsos to Brønnøysund in Norway crashes into the side of the Torghatten mountain, killing all 36 passengers and crew.


1994 - Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom and French President François Mitterrand inaugurate the opening of the Channel Tunnel ? a tunnel under the English Channel linking England and France for the first time since the end of the Great Ice Age.

1996 - The body of former CIA director William Colby is found washed up on a riverbank in southern Maryland, eight days after he disappeared.

1998 - Swiss Guard Alois Estermann, his wife Gladys Meza Romero, and a Swiss Guard corporal, Cédric Tornay, were found dead in Estermann's quarters in the Vatican.

2002 - Jean-Pierre Raffarin becomes Prime Minister of France.

2002 - Pim Fortuyn, Dutch politician, is shot, while he's running for prime minister.


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