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1538 - Bogotá, Colombia, founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada.

1787 - Sixty proof sheets of the Constitution of the United States are delivered to the Constitutional Convention.

1806 - Francis II, the last Holy Roman Emperor, abdicates, thus ending the Holy Roman Empire.

1819 - Norwich University founded in Vermont as the first private military school in the United States.

1825 - Bolivia gains independence from Spain.

1845 - Russian Geographical Society is founded in Saint Petersburg.

1861 - British annexation of Lagos, Nigeria.

1862 - American Civil War: The Confederate ironclad CSS Arkansas is scuttled on the Mississippi River after suffering damage in a battle with USS Essex near Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

1890 - At Auburn Prison in New York, the first execution by electric chair is performed, with murderer William Kemmler as the subject.

1901 - Kiowa land in Oklahoma is opened for white settlement, effectively dissolving the contiguous reservation.

1909 - Mrs. John R. Ramsie and three friends become the first women to complete a transcontinental auto trip.

1912 - The Bull Moose Party meets at the Chicago Coliseum.

1914 - Ten German U-boats leave their base in Heligoland to attack Royal Navy warships in the North Sea, beginning the First Battle of the Atlantic.


1914 - Serbia declares war on Germany; Austria declares war on Russia. World War I begins.

1914 - Denis Patrick Dowd Jr. enlists in the Franch Foregin Legion, becoming the first American to fight in World War I.

1915 - World War I: The Battle of Sari Bair begins - The Allies mount a diversionary attack timed to coincide with a major Allied landing of reinforcements at Suvla Bay.

1923 - Henry Sullivan swims the English Channel.

1926 - Gertrude Ederle becomes first woman to swim across the English Channel.

1926 - In New York, the Warner Brothers' Vitaphone system premieres with the movie Don Juan starring John Barrymore.

1926 - Harry Houdini performs his greatest feat, spending 91 minutes underwater in a sealed tank before escaping.

1941 - A curfew is imposed on gas stations in preparation for the upcoming war.

1942 - Queen Wilhelmina is the first reigning queen to address a joint session of the United States congress.

1945 - World War II: the Atomic bombing of Hiroshima. An atomic bomb codenamed Little Boy is dropped by the American B-29 Enola Gay on the city of Hiroshima in Japan at 8:16 a.m., killing 80,000 outright with another 60,000 dead by the end of the year due to fallout sickness. Ultimately, about 200,000 die due to the atomic bomb.

1960 - Cuban Revolution: In response to a United States embargo, Cuba nationalizes American and foreign-owned property in the nation.

1962 - Jamaica becomes independent.

1965 - US President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Voting Rights Act of 1965 into United States law.


1966 - Braniff Airlines Flight 250 crashes in Falls City, NE killing all 42 on board.

1984 - Pop star Prince releases Purple Rain, the album which would launch him to superstardom.

1986 - A low-pressure system that redeveloped off the New South Wales coast dumps a record 328 millimetres (13 inches) of rain in a day on Sydney.

1988 - "Police riot" in New York City's Tompkins Square Park

1990 - Gulf War: The United Nations Security Council orders a global trade embargo against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait

1991 - Tim Berners-Lee releases files describing his idea for the World Wide Web.

1991 - Doi Takako, chair of the Social Democratic Party (Japan), becomes Japan's first female speaker of the House of Representatives.

1993 - Louis Freeh is confirmed by the United States Senate to be the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation

1993 - The Fugitive opens in theaters, starring Harrison Ford and Tommy Lee Jones.

1996 - NASA announces that the ALH 84001 meteorite, thought to originate from Mars, contains evidence of primitive life-forms.

1997 - Microsoft buys $150 million worth of shares of financially troubled Apple Computer.

1997 - Korean Air Flight 801, a Boeing 747-300, crashes into the jungle on Guam on approach to airport, killing 228.

2000 - The Roman Catholic Church's Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, under Prefect Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, publishes Dominus Iesus, notable for its lack of the filioque clause in the Latin text of the Nicene Creed.

2001 - White House briefing entitled Bin Laden Determined to Strike in U.S. delivered to George W. Bush. This document foreshadowed the September 11, 2001 attacks.

2002 - Marquis de la Fayette is made Honorary Citizen of the United States

2002 - Manindra Agrawal et al prove the long standing number theory conjecture in the article entitled "Primes in P".


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