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1665 - The London Gazette, the oldest surviving journal, is first published.

1786 - The oldest musical organization in the United States was founded as the Stoughton Musical Society.

1811 - Tecumseh's War: The Battle of Tippecanoe was fought near present-day Battle Ground, Indiana, United States.

1837 - In Alton, Illinois, abolitionist printer Elijah P. Lovejoy is shot dead by a mob while attempting to protect his printing shop from being destroyed a third time.

1848 - U.S. presidential election, 1848: Zachary Taylor is elected president in the first US presidential election held in every state on the same day.

1861 - American Civil War: Battle of Belmont: In Belmont, Missouri, Union forces led by General Ulysses S. Grant overrun a Confederate camp but are forced to retreat when Confederate reinforcements arrive.

1874 - A cartoon by Thomas Nast in Harper's Weekly, is considered the first important use of an elephant as a symbol for the United States Republican Party

1885 - In Craigellachie, British Columbia, construction ends on the Canadian Pacific Railway railway extending across Canada.

1893 - Women in the U.S. state of Colorado are granted the right to vote.

1910 - The first air freight shipment (from Dayton, Ohio, to Columbus, Ohio) is undertaken by the Wright Brothers and department store owner Max Moorehouse.

1912 - The Deutsche Opernhaus (now Deutsche Oper Berlin) opens in the Berlin neighborhood of Charlottenburg, with a production of Beethoven's Fidelio.

1914 - The first issue of The New Republic magazine is published.

1916 - U.S. presidential election, 1916: Democrat Woodrow Wilson is re-elected President of the United States by defeating Republican Charles Evans Hughes. Meanwhile, Jeannette Rankin of Montana becomes the first woman elected to the United States House of Representatives.


1917 - Russian Revolution: In Petrograd, Russia, Bolshevik leaders Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky lead revolutionaries in overthrowing the Provisional Government (As Russia is still using the Julian Calendar, subsequent period references show a October 25 date).

1917 - World War I: Third Battle of Gaza ends: British forces capture Gaza from the Ottoman Empire.

1918 - The 1918 influenza epidemic spreads to Western Samoa, killing 7,542 (about 20% of the population) by the end of the year.

1929 - In New York City, the Museum of Modern Art opens to the public.

1932 - Buck Rogers in the 25th Century airs on radio for the first time.

1934 - Premiere of Rachmaninoff's Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini at the Lyric Opera House in Baltimore, Maryland, United States.

1940 - In the U.S. state of Washington, the middle section of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapses in a windstorm, a mere four months after the bridge's completion.

1944 - U.S. presidential election, 1944: Franklin D. Roosevelt wins re-election over challenger Thomas E. Dewey, to become the only U.S. president to be elected to a fourth term.

1956 - Suez Crisis: The United Nations General Assembly adopts a resolution calling for the United Kingdom, France and Israel to immediately withdraw their troops from Egypt.

1957 - Cold War: The Gaither Report calls for more American missiles and fallout shelters.

1962 - Richard M. Nixon loses the gubernatorial election in the U.S. state of California. In his concession speech, he states that this is his "last press conference" and that "you won't have Dick Nixon to kick around any more".

1963 - Wunder von Lengede: In Germany, eleven miners are rescued from a collapsed mine after 14 days.

1967 - US President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967, establishing the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.


1972 - U.S. presidential election, 1972: Republican incumbent Richard Nixon defeats Democratic Senator George McGovern.

1973 - The U.S. Congress overrides President Richard M. Nixon's veto of the War Powers Resolution, which limits presidential power to wage war without congressional approval.

1983 - A bomb explodes inside the US Capitol building.

1987 - In Tunisia, president Habib Bourguiba is overthrown and replaced by Prime Minister Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.

1989 - Douglas Wilder wins the governor's seat in Virginia, becoming the first elected African American governor in the United States.

1989 - David Dinkins becomes the first African American mayor of New York City.

1989 - East German Prime Minister Willi Stoph, along with his entire cabinet, is forced to resign after huge anti-government protests.

1991 - Basketball player Magic Johnson announces he has tested positive for the HIV virus that causes AIDS, and that he is retiring.

1992 - The Party for Socialist Turkey is founded.

1996 - NASA launches the Mars Global Surveyor.

1996 - A Nigerian Boeing 727 crashes into a lagoon 40 miles southeast of Lagos, killing 143.

2000 - U.S. presidential election, 2000: Republican Texas Governor George W. Bush defeats Democrat Vice President Al Gore, but the final outcome is not known for over a month because of disputed votes in Florida.

2000 - Hillary Rodham Clinton is elected to the United States Senate, becoming the first First Lady of the United States to win public office.

2001 - Bankruptcy of Belgium's SABENA Airlines.

2001 - The supersonic commercial aircraft Concorde resumes flying after a 15-month break.

2002 - Iran bans advertising of United States products.

2004 - War in Iraq: The interim government of Iraq calls for a 60-day "state of emergency" as U.S. forces storm the insurgent stronghold of Fallujah.


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