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558 - In Constantinople, the dome of the Hagia Sophia collapses. Justinian I immediately orders the dome rebuilt.

1274 - In France, the Second Council of Lyons opens to regulate the election of the Pope.

1429 - Joan of Arc ends the Siege of Orléans, pulling an arrow from her own shoulder and returning wounded to lead the final charge. The victory marks a turning point in the Hundred Years' War.

1697 - Stockholm's royal castle (dating back to medieval times) is destroyed in a huge fire (in the 18th century, it is replaced with the current Royal Palace).

1763 - Indian Wars: Pontiac's Rebellion begins - Chief Pontiac begins the "Conspiracy of Pontiac" by attacking British forces at Fort Detroit.

1824 - World premiere of Ludwig van Beethoven's Ninth Symphony in Vienna, Austria. Work was conducted by Michael Umlauf, under the deaf composer's supervision.

1832 - Greece is recognised independent by the Treaty of London. Otto of Wittelsbach, Prince of Bavaria is chosen King.

1836 - The settlement of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico is elevated to the royal status of villa by the government of Spain.

1840 - The Great Natchez Tornado strikes Natchez, Mississippi, killing 317 people. It is the second deadliest tornado in U.S. history.

1847 - In Philadelphia, the American Medical Association (AMA) is founded.

1864 - American Civil War: The Army of the Potomac, under General Ulysses S. Grant, breaks off from the Battle of the Wilderness and moves southwards.

1895 - In Saint Petersburg, Russian scientist Alexander Stepanovich Popov demonstrates to the Russian Physical and Chemical Society his invention - the first in the world radio receiver. In the former Soviet Union this day is celebrated as Day of Radio.

1896 - H. H. Holmes is hanged in Philadelphia.


1915 - World War I: a German submarine U-20 sinks the RMS Lusitania, killing 1,198 people.

1920 - Kiev Offensive: Polish troops led by Józef Pi?sudski and Edward Rydz-?mig?y and assisted by a symbolic Ukrainian force captured Kiev only to be driven out by the Red Army counter-offensive a moth later.

1937 - Spanish Civil War: The German Condor Legion, equipped with Heinkel He 51 biplanes, arrive in Spain to assist Franco's forces.

1945 - World War II: General Alfred Jodl signs unconditional surrender terms at Reims, France, ending Germany's participation in the war. The document will take effect the next day.

1946 - Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering (later renamed Sony) is founded with about 20 employees.

1947 - Kraft Television Theater debuts, running for the next 11 years.

1948 - The Council of Europe is founded during the Hague Congress.

1952 - The concept for the integrated circuit, the basis for all modern computers, is first published by Geoffrey W.A. Dummer.

1954 - Indochina War: The Battle of Dien Bien Phu ends in a French defeat (the battle began on March 13).

1960 - Cold War: U-2 Crisis - Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev announces that his nation is holding American U-2 pilot Gary Powers.

1964 - Pacific Air Lines Flight 773, a Fairchild F-27 airliner, crashes near San Ramon, California, killing all 44 aboard; the FBI later reports that a cockpit recorder tape indicates that the pilot and co-pilot had been shot by a suicidal passenger.

1974 - West German Chancellor Willy Brandt resigns.

1992 - Michigan ratifies a 203-year-old proposed amendment to the United States Constitution making the 27th Amendment law. This amendment bars the U.S. Congress from giving itself a mid-term pay raise.


1992 - Space Shuttle Endeavour is launched on its maiden voyage.

1992 - Three employees at a McDonald's Restaurant in Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada, are brutally murdered and a fourth permanently disabled after a botched robbery. It is the first fast-food murder in Canada.

1998 - Mercedes-Benz buys Chrysler for US$40 billion and forms DaimlerChrysler in the largest industrial merger in history.

1999 - Pope John Paul II travels to Romania becoming the first pope that had visited a predominantly Eastern Orthodox country since the Great Schism in 1054.

1999 - A jury finds The Jenny Jones Show and Warner Bros. liable in the shooting death of Scott Amedure, after the show purposely deceived Jonathan Schmitz to appear on a secret same-sex crush episode. Schmitz later killed Amedure and the jury awarded Amedure's family US$25 million.

1999 - Kosovo War: In Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, three Chinese embassy workers are killed and 20 wounded when a NATO aircraft mistakenly bombs the Chinese embassy in Belgrade.

1999 - In Guinea-Bissau, President João Bernardo Vieira is ousted in a military coup.

2002 - A China Southern Airlines MD-82 plunges into the Yellow Sea, killing 112 people.

2005 - Former Lebanese Prime Minister, General Michel Aoun returns to Lebanon after 15 years in exile.

2006 - Rolling Stone Magazine publishes its 1000th cover issue.


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