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694 - Hispano-Visigothic king Egica accuses Jews of aiding Muslims, sentencing all Jews to slavery.

1282 - Pope Martin IV excommunicates King Peter III of Aragon.

1492 - Peace of Etaples between Henry VII & Charles VIII.

1494 - Family de' Medici become rulers of Florence.

1520 - Danish King Christian II executes 82 in the Stockholm Bloodbath.

1729 - Spain, France & England sign the Treaty of Seville.

1764 - Mary Campbell, a captive of the Lenape during the French and Indian War, is turned over to forces commanded by Colonel Henry Bouquet.

1799 - Napoleon Bonaparte leads the Coup d'état of 18 Brumaire ending the unwieldy Directory government, and becoming one of its three Consuls (Consulate Government).

1848 - Robert Blum, German revolutionary, executed in Vienna

1851 - Kentucky marshals abduct abolitionist minister Calvin Fairbank from Jeffersonville, Indiana, and take him to Kentucky to stand trial for helping a slave escape.

1862 - American Civil War: Union General Ambrose Burnside assumes command of the Army of the Potomac, after George McClellan was removed.

1872 - The Great Boston Fire of 1872.

1887 - The United States receives rights to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.


1888 - Jack the Ripper kills Mary Jane Kelly, his last known victim.

1906 - Theodore Roosevelt is the first sitting President of the United States to make an official trip outside the country (to inspect progress on the Panama Canal).

1907 - The Cullinan Diamond is presented to King Edward VII on his birthday.

1918 - Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicates after the German Revolution, and Germany is proclaimed a Republic.

1918 - Kurt Eisner, Provisional National Council Minister-President, declares Bavaria to be a republic.

1921 - Albert Einstein awarded Nobel Prize in Physics for his work with the photoelectric effect.

1923 - In Munich, Germany, police and government troops crush the Beer Hall Putsch in Bavaria. The failed coup is the work of the Nazis.

1932 - Riots between conservative and socialist supporters in Switzerland kill 12 and injure 60.

1937 - Japanese troops take control of Shanghai, China.

1938 - Kristallnacht, Nazi Germany's first large-scale act of physical anti-Jewish violence, begins.

1940 - Premiere of Joaquin Rodrigo's Concierto de Aranjuez in Barcelona, Spain.

1953 - Cambodia becomes independent from France.

1960 - Robert McNamara is named president of Ford Motor Co., the first non-Ford to serve in that post ? quitting a month later to join the newly-elected John F. Kennedy administration.


1961 - Neil Armstrong records a world record speed in a rocket plane of 6,587km/h flying a X-15.

1963 - At Miike in Japan, a coal mine explosion kills 458, and hospitalises 839 with carbon monoxide poisoning. On the same day, a three-train disaster in Yokohama, also in Japan, kills more than 160 people.

1965 - Several U.S. states and parts of Canada are hit by a series of blackouts lasting up to 13 hours in the Northeast Blackout of 1965.

1965 - Catholic Worker member Roger Allen LaPorte, protesting against the Vietnam War, sets himself on fire in front of the United Nations building.

1967 - Apollo program: NASA launches the unmanned Apollo 4 test spacecraft from Cape Kennedy.

1970 - Vietnam War: The Supreme Court of the United States votes 6 to 3 against hearing a case to allow Massachusetts to enforce its law granting residents the right to refuse military service in an undeclared war.

1971 - John List, an accountant from Westfield, New Jersey murders his mother, wife and three children. He then hides under a new identity for 18 years.

1986 - Romania: Election of Patriarch Teoctist Ar?pa?u

1989 - Cold War: Communist-controlled East Germany opens checkpoints in the Berlin Wall allowing its citizens to freely travel to West Germany.

1993 - Stari most, the "old bridge" in Bosnian Mostar built in 1566, collapses after several days of bombing.

1994 - Discovery of the chemical element Darmstadtium.

1995 - Bill Watterson announsed his retirement in a brief letter to newspaper editors.

1997 - The infamous Montreal Screwjob happened in Montreal, Quebec.

1998 - Brokerage houses are ordered to pay US$1.03 billion to cheated NASDAQ investors to compensate for their price-fixing. This is the largest civil settlement in United States history.

1999 - TAESA Flight 725, went down a few minutes after leaving the Uruapan airport en-route to Mexico City. 18 people were killed in the accident

2003 - During the holy month of Ramadan, a suicide-terrorist attack in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, kills 17 people.

2004 - Mozilla Firefox 1.0 released. This has become one of Microsoft Internet Explorer's biggest competitors.

2004 - John Ashcroft and Don Evans resign their posts as U.S. Attorney General and U.S. Secretary of Commerce respectively.

2004 - Halo 2 is released by the Microsoft Corporation. The sci-fi action shooter smashes entertainment records, grossing $125 Million on its opening day.

2005 - The Venus Express mission of the European Space Agency is launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.

2005 - Suicide bombers attacked three hotels in Amman, Jordan, killing at least 56 people.

2005 - Muriel Degauque becomes the first Belgian female suicide bomber, wounding one in Iraq.


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