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3761 BC - The epoch (origin) of the modern Hebrew calendar.

336 - Pope Mark ends his reign as Catholic Pope.

1492 - Christopher Columbus misses Florida when he changes course.

1506 - Pope Julius II and France occupy Bologna.

1513 - Battle of La Motta: Spanish troops under Ramon de Cardona defeat the Venetians.

1520 - First public burning of books in Netherlands, in Louvain.

1542 - Explorer Cabrillo discovered Catalina Island off California coast.

1571 - The Battle of Lepanto is fought, and the Holy League (Spain and Italy) destroys the Turkish fleet.

1637 - Prince Frederick Henry of Orange occupies Breda.

1690 - English attack Quebec under Louis de Buade.

1702 - English/Dutch troops under John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough occupy Roermond.

1714 - Beer tax riots in Alkmaar, Netherlands.

1737 - 40 foot waves sink 20,000 small craft and kill 300,000 (Bengal, India).


1763 - George III of Great Britain issues British Royal Proclamation of 1763, closing aboriginal lands in North America north and west of Alleghenies to white settlements.

1765 - Stamp Act Congress convenes in NY.

1769 - English explorer, Captain Cook, discovers New Zealand.

1776 - Crown Prince Paul of Russia marries Sophie Marie Dorothea of Württemberg.

1777 - American Revolutionary War: Americans beat the British in the Battle of Second Saratoga and the Battle of Bemis Heights.

1780 - American Revolutionary War: Battle of Kings Mountain American Patriot militia defeat Loyalist irregulars led by British colonel Patrick Ferguson in South Carolina.

1806 - Carbon paper patented in London by inventor Ralph Wedgewood.

1816 - The first double-decked steamboat, the "Washington," arrives in New Orleans, Louisiana.

1826 - Granite Railway (first chartered railway in the U.S.) begins operations.

1828 - The city of Patras, Greece is liberated by the French expeditionary force in Peloponnese under General Maison.

1840 - Willem II becomes King of the Netherlands.

1864 - Battle of Darbytown Road (American Civil War): the Confederate forces' attempt to regain ground that had been lost around Richmond is thwarted.

1864 - American Civil War: Capture of the C.S.S. "Florida" ? Union Warship captures the U.S.S. "Wachusett" ? Confederate raider ship while in port in Bahia, Brazil.


1865 - The Morant Bay Rebellion starts in Jamaica.

1868 - Cornell University holds opening day ceremonies; initial student enrollment is 412, the most at any American university to that date.

1870 - Leon Gambetta flees Paris in balloon.

1879 - Germany and Austria-Hungary sign the "Twofold Covenant" and create the Dual Alliance.

1882 - Baseball: First World Series (game 2), Chicago (NL) beats Cincinnati (AA) 2-0.

1886 - Spain abolishes slavery in Cuba.

1900 - The term "orienteering" is first used for an event.

1904 - Baseball: New York Highlander Jack Chesbro wins record 41st game of season (41-12).

1907 - France's Henry Farman flies 30 m in a double decker plane.

1908 - Crete revolts against the Ottoman Empire and aligns with Greece.

1908 - Serbia and Montenegro sign anti-Austria-Hungarian pact.

1912 - The Helsinki Stock Exchange sees its first transaction.

1916 - Georgia Tech defeats Cumberland University 222-0 in the most lopsided victory in American college football.

1919 - KLM of the Netherlands was founded. It is the oldest airline still operating under its original name.

1919 - First London-Amsterdam airline service (Britain Aerial Transport and KLM).

1922 - Oud-burgem of Rotterdam Zimmerman becomes High Comm's of Austria.

1922 - First radio link, WNJ (Newark, New Jersey) and WGY (Schenectady) link for World Series.

1924 - Greek government of Dikalekopoulis forms.

1928 - Ras Tafari Makonnen crowned negus of Abyssinia by Empress Zauditu.

1928 - Paavo Nurmi runs world record 10 miles (50:15.0).

1929 - Ramsay MacDonald is the first British premier to address the U.S. Congress.

1931 - First infra-red photograph, Rochester, New York.

1938 - Germany demands all Jewish passports stamped with the letter J.

1940 - Germany invades Romania.

1941 - German army occupies Viarma, U.S.S.R.

1941 - John Curtin becomes the 14th Prime Minister of Australia

1942 - the McCollum memo conspires to bring the U.S. to war in Europe by provoking the Japanese to attack the United States.

1942 - U.S. and British government announce establishment of United Nations.

1942 - Maxwell Anderson's "Eve of St. Mark," premieres in New York City.

1942 - Salvo Katjoesja-rocket destroys Nazi battalion in Stalingrad.

1943 - Japan executes 100 American civilian prisoners on Wake Island.

1944 - Uprising at Birkenau concentration camp.

1944 - Uprising at Auschwitz, Jews burn down crematoriums.

1944 - Fieldmarshal Erwin Rommel ordered to return to Berlin.

1944 - Allies bombs sea dikes at Vlissingen.

1949 - German Democratic Republic (East Germany) formed.

1949 - One of the earliest television shows, "Ford Theater" debuts

1950 - United States forces cross the 38th parallel.

1951 - Malayan Emergency: Malayan Races Liberation Army (MRLA) ambushes and kills British High Commissioner Sir Henry Gurney.

1951 - David Ben-Gurion forms Israeli government.

1957 - Dick Clark's "American Bandstand" debuts.

1958 - President of Pakistan Iskander Mirza, with the support of General Ayub Khan and the army, suspends the 1956 constitution, imposes martial law, and cancels the elections scheduled for January 1959.

1958 - U.S. manned space-flight project renamed Project Mercury.

1959 - Far side of the Moon seen for first time, compliments of U.S.S.R.'s Luna 3.

1960 - Second Kennedy and Nixon debate Cold War foreign policy in the second of four scheduled debates.

1962 - U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya, U.S.S.R.

1963 - John F. Kennedy signs ratification for nuclear test ban treaty.

1963 - Hurricane Flora hits Haiti and Dominican Republic, kills 7,190.

1968 - Hollywood adopts the movie ratings system.

1970 - Richard Nixon announces a new five-point peace proposal to end the Vietnam War.

1977 - The adoption of the Fourth Soviet Constitution.

1982 - Cats opens on Broadway and runs for nearly 18 years before closing on September 10, 2000.

1984 - NFL running back Walter Payton breaks Jim Brown's rushing record.

1985 - The "Achille Lauro" is hijacked by Palestinian terrorists.

1985 - The Mameyes disaster occurs in Ponce, Puerto Rico.

1987 - The Bharati (Indian) Annexed Punjab, (East Punjab state) which is military forcibly and illegally Occupied by the Hindu centralist government, is currently held and proclaimes the Independnece of the Thecratic nation-state of the 'Sikh Republic' of Khalistan; Recognition is not admitted to the UN.

1996 - The Fox News Channel, an American cable news network, is launched.

2001 - Start of U.S. invasion of Afghanistan with an air assault and covert operations on the ground.

2002 - Maher Arar is deported by the US government to Syria, where he is tortured and held without charge for a year before being returned home to Canada.

2002 - Space Shuttle Atlantis flies mission STS-112, its last mission before the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster.

2003 - California recall: California governor Gray Davis is recalled from office and replaced by Arnold Schwarzenegger.

2004 - King Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia abdicates.


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