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1095 - On the last day of the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II appoints Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy and Count Raymond IV of Toulouse to lead the First Crusade to the Holy Land.

1443 - Skanderbeg and his forces liberate Kruja, in Middle Albania and raise the Albanian flag.

1520 - After navigating through the South American strait, three ships under the command of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan reach the Pacific Ocean, becoming the first Europeans to sail from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific.

1582 - In Stratford-upon-Avon, William Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway pay a £40 bond for their marriage licence.

1660 - At Gresham College, 12 men, including Christopher Wren, Robert Boyle, John Wilkins, and Sir Robert Moray decide to found what is later known as the Royal Society.

1729 - Natchez Indians massacre 138 Frenchmen, 35 French women, and 56 children at Fort Rosalie, near the site of modern-day Natchez.

1785 - The Treaty of Hopewell is signed

1821 - Panama Independence Day. Panama separates from Spain and joins the Great Colombia.

1843 - Ka Lahui: Hawaiian Independence Day - The Kingdom of Hawaii is officially recognized by the United Kingdom and France as an independent nation.

1862 - American Civil War: In the Battle of Cane Hill, Union troops under General John Blunt defeat General John Marmaduke's Confederates.

1895 - The first American automobile race takes place over the 54 miles from Chicago's Jackson Park to Evanston, Illinois. Frank Duryea wins in approximately 10 hours.

1905 - Irish nationalist Arthur Griffith founds Sinn Féin as a political party whose goal is the independence of Ireland.

1907 - In Haverhill, Massachusetts, scrap-metal dealer Louis B. Mayer opens his first movie theater.


1912 - Albania declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire.

1914 - World War I: Following a war-induced closure in July, the New York Stock Exchange re-opens for bond trading.

1919 - Lady Astor is elected to be the first female member of parliament in the UK.

1920 - The Mark of Zorro, starring Douglas Fairbanks opens.

1925 - Country-variety show Grand Ole Opry makes its radio debut on station WSM.

1942 - In Boston, Massachusetts, a fire in the Cocoanut Grove nightclub kills 491 people.

1943 - World War II: Tehran Conference - US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin meet in Tehran to discuss war strategy.

1944 - Albania is liberated by the Albanian partisans.

1958 - Chad, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon become autonomous republics within the French Community.

1960 - Mauritania becomes independent of France.

1964 - Mariner program: NASA launches the Mariner 4 probe toward Mars.

1964 - Vietnam War: National Security Council members agree to recommend that US President Lyndon B. Johnson adopt a plan for a two-stage escalation of bombing in North Vietnam.

1965 - Vietnam War: In response to U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson's call for "more flags" in Vietnam, Philippines President Elect Ferdinand Marcos announces he will send troops to help fight in South Vietnam.


1969 - The final episode of BBC soap-opera The Newcomers is broadcast.

1969 - The Rolling Stones release the album Let It Bleed.

1975 - East Timor declares its independence from Portugal.

1975 - As the World Turns and The Edge of Night, the final two American soap operas that had resisted going to pre-taped broadcasts, air their last live episodes.

1979 - The Mount Erebus disaster: an Air New Zealand DC-10 crashes into Mount Erebus on a sightseeing trip, killing all 257 people on board.

1979 - Billy Smith becomes the first goalie in NHL history to score a goal in a game.

1980 - Mark Morris, choreographer, puts on the Mark Morris Dance Group's first show at the Merce Cunningham Studios.

1982 - Representatives from 88 countries gather in Geneva to discuss world trade and ways to work toward aspects of free trade.

1984 - Over 250 years after their deaths, William Penn and his wife Hannah Callowhill Penn are made honorary citizens of the United States.

1987 - South African Airways flight 295 crashes into the Indian Ocean, killing all 159 people on-board.

1987 - Tawana Brawley is allegedly raped by six white men, some of them police officers, in Wappingers Falls, New York.

1989 - Cold War: Velvet Revolution - In the face of protests, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia announces they will give up their monopoly on political power.

1990 - Margaret Thatcher formally tenders her resignation to The Queen and leaves Downing Street for the last time. John Major is elected her successor.

1994 - Voters in Norway reject European Union membership (see Norwegian EU referendum, 1994).

1994 - In Portage, Wisconsin, convicted serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer is clubbed to death by an inmate in the Columbia Correctional Institute gymnasium.

1995 - U.S. President Bill Clinton signs a highway bill that ends the federal 55 mph speed limit.

1997 - Kosovo Liberation Army, Albanian guerrilla group fighting for freedom of Kosovo, presents in front of the people of Kosovo.

2000 - Ukrainian politician Oleksander Moroz begins the Cassette Scandal by publicly accusing President Leonid Kuchma of involvement in the murder of journalist Georgiy Gongadze.

2000 - The eighth tar drop falls in the University of Queensland pitch drop experiment.

2002 - 13 people are killed in a hotel bombing in Mombasa.

2004 - Male Po'o-uli dies of avian malaria in Maui Bird Conservation Center in Olinda before it could breed, making the species most in all probability extinct.

2005 - The Official Opposition (Conservative Party of Canada , New Democratic Party, and Bloc Québécois) bring down the 38th Minority Liberal Government of Canada in a vote of non-confidence forcing immediate campaigning for the 39th Federal Election.


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