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1777 - San Jose, California, is founded as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe. It is the first civilian settlement, or pueblo, in Alta California.

1781 - The slave ship Zong dumps its living cargo into the sea in order to claim insurance.

1830 - November Uprising: An armed rebellion against Russia's rule in Poland begins.

1845 - The Sonderbund is defeated by the joint forces of other Swiss cantons under General Guillaume-Henri Dufour.

1847 - Whitman Massacre: Missionaries Dr. Marcus Whitman, his wife Narcissa, and 15 others are killed by Cayuse and Umatilla Indians, causing the Cayuse War.

1850 - The treaty called Punctation of Olmütz was signed in Olomouc. It meant diplomatic capitulation of Prussia to Austrian Empire, which took over the leadership of German Confederation.

1864 - Indian Wars: Sand Creek Massacre - Colorado volunteers led by Colonel John Chivington massacre at least 150 Cheyenne and Arapaho noncombatants inside Colorado Territory.

1872 - Indian Wars: The Modoc War begins with the Battle of Lost River.

1877 - Thomas Edison demonstrates his phonograph for the first time.

1890 - The Meiji Constitution goes into effect in Japan and the first Diet convenes.

1890 - In West Point, New York, the United States Naval Academy defeats the United States Military Academy 24-0 in the first Army-Navy football game.

1893 - Ziqiang Institute, today known as Wuhan University, was founded by Zhang Zhidong, governor of Hubei and Hunan Provinces in late Qing Dynasty of China after his memorial to the throne was approved by the Qing Government.

1915 - Fire destroys most of the buildings on Santa Catalina Island in California.


1922 - Howard Carter opened the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamen ("King Tut") to the public.

1929 - U.S. Admiral Richard Byrd becomes the first person to fly over the South Pole.

1943 - The second session of AVNOJ, the Anti-fascist council of national liberation of Yugoslavia, is held in Jajce, Bosnia and Herzegovina, determining the post-war ordering of the country.

1944 - The first surgery (on a human) to correct blue baby syndrome is performed by Alfred Blalock and Vivien Thomas.

1945 - The Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia is declared.

1947 - The United Nations General Assembly votes to partition Palestine.

1950 - Korean War: North Korean and Chinese troops force United Nations forces to retreat from North Korea.

1952 - Korean War: U.S. President-elect Dwight D. Eisenhower fulfills a campaign promise by traveling to Korea to find out what can be done to end the conflict.

1961 - The U.S. spacecraft Mercury-Atlas 5 is launched with Enos, a chimpanzee, aboard (the spacecraft orbited the Earth twice and splashed-down off the coast of Puerto Rico).

1963 - U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson establishes the Warren Commission to investigate the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.

1963 - Trans-Canada Airlines Flight 831, A Douglas DC-8 carrying 118, crashes after taking-off from Dorval Airport near Montreal.

1965 - Canadian satellite Alouette 2 is launched.

1967 - Vietnam War: U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara announces his resignation.


1972 - Nolan Bushnell (founder of Atari) released Pong (the first commercially successful video game) in Andy Capp?s Tavern in Sunnyvale, Calif.

1975 - The name "Micro-soft" (for "microcomputer software") is first used in a letter from Bill Gates to Paul Allen.

1981 - Actress Natalie Wood drowns during a boating accident off Santa Catalina Island, California.

1982 - Soviet invasion of Afghanistan: The United Nations General Assembly passes United Nations Resolution 37/37, stating that Soviet Union forces should withdraw from Afghanistan.

1987 - A Korean Air Boeing 707 explodes over the Thai-Burmese border, killing 155.

1988 - Six Kansas City firefighters are killed in an explosion at a construction site.

1990 - Gulf War: The United Nations Security Council passes UN Security Council Resolution 678, authorizing military intervention in Iraq if that nation did not withdraw its forces from Kuwait and free all foreign hostages by January 15, 1991.

1992 - Dennis Byrd of the New York Jets is temporarily paralyzed by a neck injury during a football game against the Kansas City Chiefs.

2004 - Brett Favre day in Wisconsin, in honor of his record-setting 200th start as quarterback.

2005 - New Croatian Communist Party (KPH) is founded in Vukovar.


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